Distributed source modeling of intracranial stereoelectroencephalographic measurements
Intracranial stereoelectroencephalography (sEEG) provides unsurpassed sensitivity and specificity for human neurophysiology. However, functional mapping of brain functions has been limited because the implantations have sparse coverage and differ greatly across individuals. Here, we developed a distributed, anatomically realistic sEEG source-modeling approach for within- and between-subject analyses. In addition to intracranial event-related potentials (iERP), we estimated the sources of high broadband gamma activity (HBBG), a putative correlate of local neural firing. Our novel approach accounted for a significant portion of the variance of the sEEG measurements in leave-one-out cross-validation. After logarithmic transformations, the sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio were linearly inversely related to the minimal distance between the brain location and electrode contacts (slope≈−3.6). The signa-to-noise ratio and sensitivity in the thalamus and brain stem were comparable to those locations at the vicinity of electrode contact implantation. The HGGB source estimates were remarkably consistent with analyses of intracranial-contact data. In conclusion, distributed sEEG source modeling provides a powerful neuroimaging tool, which facilitates anatomically-normalized functional mapping of human brain using both iERP and HBBG data.