Does migration depress regional human capital accumulation in the EU’s new member states? Theoretical and empirical evidence
During the first decade of the present century the countries which accessed the EU were characterised by high GDP growth rates while most of their regions displayed negative net-migration rates. At the same time, the new member states’ human capital endowments were high relative to their GDP levels, creating incentives to emigrate. The present paper takes a detailed look at the interplay of regional human capital endowments and migration. First, by theoretically examining migration’s determinants and second, by testing the corresponding findings via panel econometric regressions for the EU’s new member states’ regions. The results display positive impacts of net-migration on regional human capital growth rates, improving the economic potential of thriving regions but possibly increasing disparities within countries.
Western Siberia and the entire circumpolar region have become an obvious migrant destination for newcomers from the European part of the country, the national republics, and Southern Siberia. Unlike the rest of Siberia, the oil- and gas-rich North is still a migration magnet for the whole of the former Soviet Union. The paper is dedicated to research into the contemporary social environment of the village Yar-Sale in Yamal. The research is focused on the migration experience of the recent newcomers and their relations with the aboriginal inhabitants. Special attention is paid to such notions as ‘local’/ ‘newly arrived’, ‘kin’/ ‘stranger’. I assume that these boundaries are flexible. A newcomer could become a local, and outsiders could become kin. Ethnic background and duration of stay in the region are not always crucial for this transition.
Der Sammelband vereint herausragende Beiträge der Konferenz Welt und Wissenschaft 2017 an der National Research University Higher School of Economics in Moskau.
We explore the 2007-2008 noticeable liberalization of Russian labor immigration, perceived as a natural experiment. How it influenced the labor market equilibrium and especially wages of certain categories of Russian employees? We use various data, including remittances from Russia, and restore related hike in official and unofficial labor immigration. According to our rough estimate, the mass of gastarbeiters increased significantly, from 3.4 mln in 2006 to 4.3 mln (2006) and then to 4.9 mln (2008). This did not cause additional unemployment, but influenced wages. We follow the Borjas (2016) method of assessing the impact of natural experiments, and we are interested in (equilibrium) wage elasticities and interdependencies among the labor groups in Russia. To reveal the elasticity of equilibrium wages, responding to 2007-2008 inflow of (mostly unskilled) labor, we run difference-in-difference regressions on RLMS data. For some Russian residents, their wages responded to new policy noticeably. Namely, the most affected were the pre-established Asian migrants: they lost about 14-17.5% wages in response to 8%-14% increase in similar working force. The ethnic Russians with blue-collar or low qualification lost about 4.5-5.5% of wages, while the impact on white-collars was insignificant. Arguing about the macro-economic consequences of such liberalization policies for Russia, we thereby point out the negatively affected categories of employees and the degree of their losses, which can be compared with additional GDP generated.
This Handbook explores the multifaceted linkages between two of the most important socioeconomic phenomena of our time: globalisation and migration. Both are on the rise, increasing in size and scope worldwide, and this Handbook offers the necessary background knowledge and tools to understand how population flows shape, and are shaped by, economic and cultural globalisation. Through central themes which correspond to the four domains of human life – politics, economics (separated into trade and development, and the global division of labour), culture and family life – expert authors from five continents highlight the interdependence between migration and globalisation, and explore the mutual impact of economic, social and political globalisation on international population flows. They also investigate how migrants themselves become agents of the globalisation process. With accessible language that guides the reader easily through complex issues, this Handbook makes an ideal resource for undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and academics interested in migration, ethnicity, development, international relations and international economics.
The Russian Federation appeared on the world map as an independent state at the end of 1991, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Even as it grappled with huge political and economic upheaval, Russia suddenly found itself home to a massive number of “immigrants” from former Soviet states. With little experience managing international migration flows to guide policy in this area initially, Russia has been at the center of transformative shifts in migration, all while its government has worked to solidify a comprehensive migration management system.
The history of international migration in Russia did not begin with the breakup of the Soviet Union. Therefore, analysis of migration patterns in the Russian Federation, as in other former Soviet republics, should begin in earlier times, when they formed a single state. Many sociodemographic issues and ethnopolitical conflicts in former Soviet republics, as well as migration flows between them after the breakdown of the Soviet Union, are to a large extent the result of Soviet-era migration. Today, Russia maintains strong cultural, political, and economic ties with residents of former Soviet states—reflected in ongoing migration patterns—which it works to strengthen with its citizenship policies.
The chapter examines the role of language and cultural space in shaping and/or reshaping the identity of both first- and second-generation Georgian teenage students in the state secondary school in Moscow with a Georgian ethnocultural component. By analyzing the students’ linguistic behavior in the classroom, an attempt is made to examine how students negotiate their identity and sense of belonging while outside Georgia. More specifically, this study shows how Georgian students (re)shape their identity in light of linguistic, cultural, and spatial changes taking place in the institutional settings of the Moscow school. The language of instruction in the school is Russian. However, taking into consideration the fact that the majority of the school teachers are ethnic Georgians, it appears that this has implicit (and in some cases explicit) underpinnings in relation to the students’ ethnic identity orientation. The results demonstrate that high institutional support at school as well as the students’ high sense of group belonging which is encouraged by the school’s administration and teaching staff contributes to students’ identity construction process. The evidence indicates that the blurring of ethnic and cultural identity boundaries in the context of the Russian capital city has an effect on the students’ linguistic behavior at different levels (phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexicon).
During many years Tajikistan has been the world leader in terms of the ratio of remittances to GDP. Late 2000s and early 2010s were the years of migration boom when the country’s dependence on financial streams from migration was established and the effects of migration started being evident. Much of these effects were driven by the characteristics of migrants and their households and the context of the country. This chapter reviews recent evidence on the effects that migration has on the lives of households in Tajikistan. Using data from a panel household survey, this chapter describes migrants’ profile and factors of migration decision with a special focus on migrant skills and their households’ wealth.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.