Интернационализация каршеринговых компаний в Европе
The purpose of this paper is to explore the specifics of the internationalization process of carsharing companies as the largest players in the new sector of a sharing economy. The comparative analysis of the internationalization process of carsharing companies in European countries was conducted from four directions: the intensity of car use, the way to enter foreign markets, internationalization rate, and the choice of locations within a country for doing business. Carsharing companies with B2C and P2P business models pursue various strategies to penetrate foreign
markets. B2C companies lead the internationalization process; in most cases they are large European automotive corporations or car rental companies. When entering the same foreign market, companies with a P2P business model cover more cities in it a country than B2C firms. Also, over the internationalization period carsharing companies with a B2C business model enter the markets of more countries than P2P companies. The latter primarily enter the markets of neighboring countries, while the former internationalize in the largest markets. The further global expansion of carsharing is determined by several contradicting factors. Before the COVID-19 pandemic began, most scholars had predicted a growing popularity of carsharing services. The use of electric vehicles and automated guided vehicles within the framework of carsharing sparked the main growth impacts. However, the coronavirus pandemic poses a threat to the development of a sharing economy. Reinforcement of safety requirements as to minimize personal contacts and consumer interactions along with the aspiration of states to reduce their level of involvement in
global processes can lead to the transformation of the process and internationalization strategies.