Optical properties of charged excitons in two-dimensional semiconductors
Strong Coulomb interaction in atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides makes these systems particularly promising for studies of excitonic physics. Of special interest are the manifestations of the charged excitons, also known as trions, in the optical properties of two- dimensional semiconductors. In order to describe the optical response of such a system, the exciton interaction with resident electrons should be explicitly taken into account. In this paper, we demonstrate that this can be done in both the trion (essentially, few-particle) and Fermi- polaron (many-body) approaches, which produce equivalent results, provided that the electron density is sufficiently low and the trion binding energy is much smaller than the exciton one. Here, we consider the oscillator strengths of the optical transitions related to the charged excitons, fine structure of trions, and Zeeman effect, as well as photoluminescence of trions illustrating the applicability of both few-particle and many-body models.
The possibility to observe a macroscopically coherent state in a gas of two-dimensional direct excitons at temperatures up to tens of Kelvin is described. The dramatic increase of the exciton lifetime allowing effective thermalization is predicted for the o -resonant cavities that strongly suppress exciton recombination. The material systems considered are single GaAs quantum wells of di erent thicknesses and a transition metal dichalcogenide monolayer, embedded in a layered medium with subwavelength period. The quantum hydrodynamic approach combined with the Bogoliubov description yield the one-body density matrix of the system. Employing the Kosterlitz-Thouless \dielectric screening" problem to account for vortices, we obtain the superfluid and the condensate densities and the critical temperature of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless crossover, for all geometries in consideration. Experimentally observable manyfold increase of the photoluminescence intensity from the structure as it is cooled below the critical temperature is predicted.
Two-dimensional stacking fault defects embedded in a bulk crystal can provide a homogeneous trapping potential for carriers and excitons. Here we utilize state-of-the-art structural imaging coupled with density- functional and effective-mass theory to build a microscopic model of the stacking-fault exciton. The diamagnetic shift and exciton dipole moment at different magnetic fields are calculated and compared with the experimental photoluminescence of excitons bound to a single stacking fault in GaAs. The model is used to further provide insight into the properties of excitons bound to the double-well potential formed by stacking fault pairs. This microscopic exciton model can be used as an input into models which include exciton-exciton interactions to determine the excitonic phases accessible in this system.
Solar cells based on organometal halide perovskites have recently become very promising among other materials because of their cost-effective character and improvements in efficiency. Such performance is primarily associated with effective light absorption and large diffusion length of charge carriers. Our paper is devoted to the explanation of large diffusion lengths in these systems. The transport mean free path of charged carriers in a perovskite/TiO2heterojunction that is an important constituent of the solar cells have been analyzed. Large transport length is explained by the planar diffusion of indirect excitons.Diffusion length of the coupled system increases by several orders compared to single carrier length due to the correlated character of the effective field acting on the exciton.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.