Переходное правосудие в Колумбии: нереализованный потенциал
The article analyzes the theoretical and practical problems that arise during the construction of the
Colombian model of transitional justice. The latter is viewed as a combination of judicial and quasi-
judicial means, with the help of which it becomes possible to achieve a peaceful settlement after the
end of the civil war of 1964–2016. Particular attention is paid to the socio-political context and mass
sentiments prevailing in Colombian society regarding the legitimacy of transferring the Anglo-Ameri-
can construction of Transitional Justice to Latin America. The so-called “Integrated System of Truth,
Justice, Reparation and Non-Repetition”, which is a consolidated version of the four main elements of
transitional justice: criminal prosecution, truth seeking, reparations to the innocent victims and “deal
with the past”, is being studied in detail. In particular, the author dwells on the issue of amnesties for
participants in an armed conጀict, the activities of the “truth commission” and compensation pay-
ments to victims of mass violence. In addition, the article examines the activities of the Colombian
Special Jurisdiction for Peace, the relevant statistical data are provided. The “Santrich case” is men-
tioned as a marker of negative trends that continue to grow in the activities of a new jurisdiction. The
conclusion is that the legal means of resolving the conጀict are secondary, albeit of absolute impor-
tance, in comparison with political agreements, to which all participants of the process of national
reconciliation sometimes are not ready organizationally and psychologically.
The paper includes analysis of implementation of Transitional Justice models in other countries; the main emphasis was made on a simple inability to borrow any model of Transitional Justice due to different social and cultural characteristics of each country, where these models are used. The given paper intends to raise the subject-matter understanding by deputies, public servants working in the field of criminal justice, law enforcement, culture and social welfare; representatives of international and non-governmental organizations.
The book includes analysis of implementation of Transitional Justice models in other countries; the main emphasis was made on a simple inability to borrow any model of Transitional Justice due to different social and cultural characteristics of each country, where these models are used. The given book intends to raise the subject-matter understanding by deputies, public servants working in the field of criminal justice, law enforcement, culture and social welfare; representatives of international and non-governmental organizations.
Do radical anticorruption measures such as lustration reduce corruption by systematically limiting the political participation of former authoritarian actors? While research has largely overlooked the role of transitional justice in addressing corruption, some scholars claim that lustration may increase corruption by reducing bureaucratic expertise. Analyzing original panel data from 30 post-communist states from 1996 to 2011, we find that lustration is effective in lowering corruption. Lustration disrupts the political, economic, and administrative malpractice of the preceding regimes by limiting opportunities for corruption of former communist elites. To illuminate the causal mechanism, we examine the cases of Estonia, which has adopted lustration and lowered corruption; Georgia, which has reduced corruption since first considering lustration; and Russia, which has not adopted lustration and maintains high levels of corruption. This study breaks new ground with a novel system-level explanation and an integrative approach to causation for the entire post-communist world.
У колективній монографії, підготовленій науковцями, юристами-практиками й експертами неурядових організацій, вперше докладно розкрито зміст, основні елементи та механізми реалізації правосуддя перехідного періоду, яке розглянуто в контексті одночасної трансформації українського суспільства від авторитарного минулого до демократичної сучасності та від умов військового конфлікту до постконфліктного стану. Проаналізовано досвід запровадження моделей правосуддя перехідного періоду в інших країнах. Зроблено акцент на неможливості простого запозичення будь-якої моделі перехідного правосуддя через відмін- ність соціально-культурних особливостей кожної з країн, де ці моделі застосовувалися. Розраховано на депутатський корпус, працівників державного сектора, які працюють у сферах кримінальної юстиції, правоохоронної діяльності, культури та соціального забезпечення; представників міжнародних і неурядових організацій.
The paper deals with the approach of post-communist Russia to international criminal law at the state and doctrinal levels. Understanding the complexity of defining the concepts of “international criminal law” and the “approach” to it, we will first discuss the current status of international criminal law in Russian state practice and doctrine. Then we will address Russia’s approach to international criminal courts and tribunals and, finally, the most important contradictions between the positions of Russia and Western states.
This article examines a new phenomenon in international criminal justice, namely so-called hybrid or internationalized courts, in which foreign judges participate along with national judges. The nature of hybrid courts is under-lined as one of the elements of transitional justice that is supported by the United Nations in the interest of countries that are just gaining their statehood or are rebounding after civil wars. The example of specific hybrid judicial institutions reveals the question of the quantitative composition of such courts and countries that most often delegate their representatives to such structures. The advantages and disadvantages of such courts are analyzed and problems are identified that are related to the definition of the law to be applied. In particular, three options are possible: firstly, the procedural rules of hybrid courts are derived from the national system of the country in question; secondly, these rules are derived from the workings of an international tribunal; and thirdly, the rules are derived from legislation that is specially passed for the purpose of a they hybrid tribunal. Particular attention is paid to the difficulties of the psychological and socio-cultural nature that arise when foreign judges work in an alien professional environment. The problem of revising the decisions of hybrid courts is touched upon, and a conclusion is made about the extremely meager procedural resources available for this revision. The possibility of using a hybrid approach in constitutional justice is considered, using Bosnia and Herzegovina and Ukraine as examples. Emphasis is placed on some of the problems that arise in the selection of judges in designated international tribunals.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/