Calculating without money. Theories of in-kind accounting of Alexander Chayanov, Otto Neurath and the early Soviet experiences
This paper focuses on Soviet practices and debates on money during the 1918-1921 period. In the first part, we briefly present the Bolshevik policy and discussions on eliminating money as a means of payments and calculation. In the second part, we outline in details A. Chayanov's model of in-kind accounting by making some comparisons with O. Neurath's proposals for an economy in kind. The latter had a decisive influence on Soviet Russia. Finally, we conclude with some reflections on the role of these models for ecological economics, modern efficiency measuring and monetary theory.