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## A Proof of the Gaudin Bethe Ansatz Conjecture

The Gaudin algebra is the commutative subalgebra in U(g)^⊗N generated by higher integrals of the quantum Gaudin magnet chain attached to a semisimple Lie algebra g. This algebra depends on a collection of pairwise distinct complex numbers z1,…,zN. We prove that this subalgebra has a cyclic vector in the space of singular vectors of the tensor product of any finite-dimensional irreducible g-modules, for all values of the parameters z1,…,zN. We deduce from this result the Bethe Ansatz conjecture in the Feigin–Frenkel form that states that the joint eigenvalues of the higher Gaudin Hamiltonians on the tensor product of irreducible finite-dimensional g-modules are in 1-1 correspondence with monodromy-free LG-opers on the projective line with regular singularities at the points z1,…,zN,∞, and the prescribed residues at the singular points.

For a generic quantum integrable system, we describe the asymptotics of the eigenstate density and of the trace of the evolution operator in all orders of the quantization parameter. This is done by using quantum symplectic geometry, which makes the given quantum system to be equivalent to a deformed classical system with arbitrary accuracy with respect to the quantization parameter. The asymptotics is explicitly given via the deformed symplectic form, deformed Liouville–Arnold tori, and deformed Maslov class.

We construct a Gaudin type lattice model as the Wess-Zumino-Witten model on elliptic curves at the critical level. Bethe eigenvectors are obtained by the bosonisation technique.

A new approach is proposed to solve the quantum evolution problem for a system with an arbitrary number of coupled optical parametric processes. Our method is based on the canonical transformations which define the evolution of the system in the Heisenberg picture. This theory overcomes the difficulties arising in the Wei–Norman method. The application of the approach developed is illustrated with the example of generation of a three-mode entangled light field.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.