Non-equilibrium neutron stars
Neutron stars contain superdense matter in their interiors. Characteristic densities in their cores are several times higher than the standard density of nuclear matter. This matter is so dense that it would be natural to assume that frequent particle collisions produce immediate equilibration. However, because of the slowness of some reactions, the equilibration with respect to them can be greatly delayed. Then one should deal with non-equilibrium stars which contain extra energy to be released. Deviations from equilibrium can affect neutrino emission of neutron stars, warm up their interiors and influence their thermal evolution. The effects of equilibration can be important for pulsating, rotating, accreting neutron stars, as well as for merging binary neutron stars.