Современные методы обеспечения целостности данных в протоколах управления киберфизических систем
At present, the problem of creating methodological security of cyberphysical systems, in particular, the design and implementation of information security subsystems is acute. At the same time, the landscape of threats and vulnerabilities typical for a wide range of hardware and software technologies used in cyberphysical systems is extremely wide and complex. In this context, the security of application layer protocols is of paramount importance, as these protocols are the basis for interaction between applications and services running on different devices, as well as in cloud infrastructures. With the constant interaction of the systems under study with the real physical infrastructure, the challenge is to determine effective measures to ensure the integrity of the transferred control commands, as disruption of the performed critical processes can affect human life and health. The paper provides an analytical review of the main methods of data integrity assurance in management protocol of cyberphysical systems, as well as an overview of application layer protocols vulnerabilities widely used in cyberphysical systems of different types. Classical methods of data integrity assurance, new methods, in particular, blockchain, as well as the main directions of increasing the efficiency of data integrity protocols in cyberphysical systems are considered. Analysis of application layer vulnerabilities is carried out on the example of the most popular MQTT, CoAP, AMQP, DDS, XMPP specifications and their implementations. It is established that despite the presence of basic security mechanisms in all these protocols, researchers continue to regularly identify vulnerabilities in popular implementations, that often endangers critical infrastructure services. In the course of preparing the review of the existing methods of data integrity assurance for the examined class of systems, the key problems of these methods integration and ways of their solution were defined.
The dg.o conference is the flagship conference of the Digital Government Society (DGS), and has positioned itself to be a top-ranking conference in this interdisciplinary academic field. It brings high quality research contributions and plays a major role in the advancement of knowledge in the field of digital government. The continue growing number of scholars and the growing number of members will continue to reinforce the position of DGS as a research and practice platform where researchers and practitioners can meet, exchange ideas, and build new relationships.
This book constitutes the joint refereed proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Next Generation Teletraffic and Wired/Wireless Advanced Networks and Systems, NEW2AN 2020, and the 13th Conference on Internet of Things and Smart Spaces, ruSMART 2020. The conference was held virtually due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
The 79 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 225 submissions. The papers of NEW2AN address various aspects of next-generation data networks, with special attention to advanced wireless networking and applications. In particular, they deal with novel and innovative approaches to performance and efficiency analysis of 5G and beyond systems, employed game-theoretical formulations, advanced queuing theory, and stochastic geometry, while also covering the Internet of Things, cyber security, optics, signal processing, as well as business aspects. ruSMART 2020, provides a forum for academic and industrial researchers to discuss new ideas and trends in the emerging areas.
The unprecedented proliferation of smart devices together with novel communication, computing, and control technologies have paved the way for A-IoT. This development involves new categories of capable devices, such as high-end wearables, smart vehicles, and consumer drones aiming to enable efficient and collaborative utilization within the smart city paradigm. While massive deployments of these objects may enrich people's lives, unauthorized access to said equipment is potentially dangerous. Hence, highly secure human authentication mechanisms have to be designed. At the same time, human beings desire comfortable interaction with the devices they own on a daily basis, thus demanding authentication procedures to be seamless and user-friendly, mindful of contemporary urban dynamics. In response to these unique challenges, this work advocates for the adoption of multi-factor authentication for A-IoT, such that multiple heterogeneous methods - both well established and emerging - are combined intelligently to grant or deny access reliably. We thus discuss the pros and cons of various solutions as well as introduce tools to combine the authentication factors, with an emphasis on challenging smart city environments. We finally outline the open questions to shape future research efforts in this emerging field.
The papers in this special issue focus on the emerging phenomenon of cryptocurrencies. Cryptocurrencies are digital financial assets, for which ownership and transfers of ownership are guaranteed by a cryptographic decentralized technology. The rise of cryptocurrencies’ value on the market and the growing popularity around the world open a number of challenges and concerns for business and industrial economics. Using the lenses of both neoclassical and behavioral theories, this introductory article discusses the main trends in the academic research related to cryptocurrencies and highlights the contributions of the selected works to the literature. A particular emphasis is on socio-economic, misconduct and sustainability issues. We posit that cryptocurrencies may perform some useful functions and add economic value, but there are reasons to favor the regulation of the market. While this would go against the original libertarian rationale behind cryptocurrencies, it appears a necessary step to improve social welfare.
Educational program “Software Engineering” of the Department of Computer Science of the HSE University includes a student research seminar “Creation of the Cyberphysical Systems” for the entry-level bachelors since 2016. During a project work groups of students create working prototypes of the cyberphysical systems. The paper describes experience of teaching “Bits and Atoms” concept and practice of usage of free software tools for design and implementation of prototypes.
The paper describes a federated identity management infrastructure based on eduroam. This technology enables secure authentication using single netid for network and resources access in eduroam federation. Major protocols and technologies for transparent user authentication are covered. A way of authorization, based on membership in institutional groups and individual user membership is proposed. For user authentication a service provider sends an authentication request contained the encrypted user name and password to user's institute RADIUS server (identity provider). Identity provider is determined by the domain user name/ The authentication request is passed through th eduroam hierarchy of proxy RADIUS servers. If the service provider provides special access for a certain group of users, it also sends a request to group identity RADIUS-server. A request passes through a hierarchy of group RADIUS servers for group membership checking. Eduroam federation and group RADIUS servers hierarchies are based on the domain name system. The implementation of these mechanisms requires a slight modification of service provider RADIUS server for group support and do not require changes of the identity provider and eduroam federations RADIUS servers. Group support is fully compatible with the existing eduroam infrastucture, the both types of RADIUS servers with and without group support can operate simultaneously
The classical cybernetics in the Norbert Wiener’s tradition is nowadays a part of the mathematical theory of complex systems and nonlinear dynamics. Only in these frameworks, building of structures and patterns in nature and technics can be explained and in computer models simulated. Self-organization and emergence became welldefined concepts and can be transferred to technical systems. In the first part of the article, the foundations of complex systems and of nonlinear dynamics are under review. As an application, the building of structures and patterns in complex cell systems, which are subject of system biology, is considered. In the second part, the application of complex system dynamics to evolution of brain and cognition is explored. The research gives us a prerequisite for development of cognitive and social robots, what the topic of the third part is. Neural network structures are not at all limited to individual organisms and robots. In the fourth part, the cyberphysical systems, by means of which complex self-controlling sociotechnical systems are modeled, are studied. The mathematical theory of complex systems and nonlinear dynamics provides us with foundation for understanding of self-organization and emergence in this field. Finally, the question of ethical and social general conditions for technical constructing of complex self-organizing systems are stated and discussed.
The paper provides an overview and analysis of existing authentication methods in wireless body area networks (WBAN). The novel Bodycom technology is presented. We give a detailed comparative analysis showing advantages and disadvantages of each approach and propose the most appropriate authentication technology.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.
Let G be a semisimple algebraic group whose decomposition into the product of simple components does not contain simple groups of type A, and P⊆G be a parabolic subgroup. Extending the results of Popov , we enumerate all triples (G, P, n) such that (a) there exists an open G-orbit on the multiple flag variety G/P × G/P × . . . × G/P (n factors), (b) the number of G-orbits on the multiple flag variety is finite.
I give the explicit formula for the (set-theoretical) system of Resultants of m+1 homogeneous polynomials in n+1 variables