Subnational consistency of cause-of-death mortality data: the cases of Russia, Germany, the United States, and France
Dissimilarities in the approaches used to certify or code underlying causes of death may diminish the usefulness and reliability of cause-of-death statistics. Consistency of cause-specific mortality data within a given country can be regarded as one of the criteria for evaluating data quality. In the present paper, we assess the subnational consistency of cause-of-death statistics in four countries: Russia, Germany, the U.S., and France. We estimate the shares of major groups of causes in the mortality structures of subnational entities (regions), and compare them with the inter-regional average values. Next, we visualize the deviations on heat map matrices. This allows us to pinpoint the cases that deviate the most with respect to regions and causes of death, as well as the causes with high levels of within-country variability, and the regions with unique mortality structure. Among the countries that we examined, France has the most consistent cause-of-death data across its regions, while Russia has the largest number of outliers. We also found that causes of death that do not have strict diagnostic criteria (e.g., ill-defined) tend to display higher variability, while the shares of causes that are easier to diagnose as underlying are more stable across the regions.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce findings of comparative analysis and various models based on cultural heritage resources to foster regional development.
Design/methodology/approach – Comparison of operational schemes, market positions and branding of three successful cultural heritage centers in Germany, Great Britain and Russia demonstrates a variety of regional development models based on cultural resources and tourism development, and reveals their advantages and disadvantages.
Findings – The paper evidences the potential of cultural resources and the tourism sector as drivers for regional development, and helps formulate basic recommendations for the Russian situation requiring elaboration of adequate financial and social instruments.
Originality/value – The paper provides a complex analysis of different operational models in three European countries with regard to specific national situations and specificity of heritage operational management.
L'objet de cet article est l`analyse comparative des problèmes de la réglementation juridique de l`activité médicale (incluant la médecine traditionnelle) et la responsabilité pénale pour l'exercice illégal de la médecine et pour les autres infractions en France et en Russie.
This article describes the results of sociological research on estimation of condition and development prospects of federalism in Russia, which was conducted by ZIRCON Research Group in January - May 2011. The opinion of population and elite groups of four regions about the foundations of Russian federalism development, administrative-territorial system of the Russian Federation and its principles, relations between subjects-regions and federative centre is presented. The results of the research indicate that at the moment a request for political and administrative autonomy of the subjects of the Federation is not obviously formulated by either citizens or regional elite groups. Regional identity is not a common phenomenon. The authors mark out necessary factors of federalism development: expansion of economic self-dependence of regions, existence of ethno-national or regional identity of citizens, democratization and decentralization.
In the article authors use the vital birh and death registration data on 10 regions exctracted from the Rosstat database to evaluate an input of international migrant into Russian fertility and mortality levels.
The edited book contains selected articles that were presented at the conference "Welt and Wissenschaft" at the National Research University Higher School of Economics in Moscow 2018, April 19.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.