On linear structure of non-commutative operator graphs
We continue the study of non-commutative operator graphs generated by resolutions of identity covariant with respect to unitary actions of the circle group and the Heisenber-Weyl group as well. It is shown that the graphs generated by the circle group has the system of unitary generators fulfilling permutations of basis vectors. For the graph generated by the Heisenberg-Weyl group the explicit formula for a dimension is given. Thus, we found a new description of the linear structure for the operator graphs introduced in our previous works.
An important topic in quantum information is the theory of error correction codes. Practical situations often involve quantum systems with states in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space, for example, coherent states. Motivated by these practical needs, we develop the theory of non-commutative graphs, which is a tool to analyze error correction codes, to infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. As an explicit example, a family of non-commutative graphs associated with the Schrödinger equation describing the dynamics of a two-mode quantum oscillator is constructed and maximal quantum anticliques for these graphs are found.
In the present paper we continue our study of non-commutative operator graphs in infinite-dimensional spaces. We consider examples of the non-commutative operator graphs generated by resolutions of identity corresponding to the Heisenberg–Weyl group of operators acting on the Fock space over one-particle state space. The problem of quantum error correction for such graphs is discussed.
We study non-commutative operator graphs generated by resolutions of identity covariant with respect to unitary representations of a compact group. Our main goal is searching for orthogonal projections which are anticliques (error-correcting codes) for such graphs. A special attention is paid to the covariance with respect to unitary representations of the circle group. We determine a tensor product structure in the space of representation under which the obtained anticliques are generated by entangled vectors.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.
Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.