Валентность факта и валентность аргументации
The paper discusses certain Russian verbs that have so far been considered as having the valency of content: otnekivat’sja ‘to deny,’ izvinjat’sja ‘to apologize,’ opravdyvat’sja ‘to make excuses,’ otgovarivat’sja ‘to dissuade,’ otbrexivat’sja ‘to rebute,’ otpirat’sja ‘to disown,’ vozmushchat’sja ‘to resent,’ vozrazhat’ ‘to object,’ sporit’ ‘to argue,’ etc. Wу hypothesize that in reality these valencies should be split into two notably different ones: the valency of fact and the valency of argumentation. The first case could be illustrared by an example like: On izvinjalsja, čto ne prišel na moj den’ roždenija ‘He apologized that he did not come to my birthday party,’ and the second case by an example such as: On izvinjalsja, čto den’ roždenija načinalsja sliškom rano ‘He apologized that the birthday party started too early’ (and as such he could not get there on time). Since both valencies are often implemented by the same means, it is certain to create ambiguities. E.g. the sentence Ja vozražal, čto ego prinjali na rabotu may mean either that I did not like the fact that he was hired; or that I don’t believe, in contrast to others, that he was indeed hired.’ It is shown that
such a split of valencies is essentially different from the situation in which the valency of content is split into the content proper (as in On ne znal, čto Petja uexal ‘He did not know that Pete had left’) and the topic (as in On ne znal o Pete ‘He did not know about Pete’).
The paper discusses the semantic interaction of the negation with certain types of verbal predicates in Russian, which involves, depending on the predicate type and its main valency structure, the emergence of new semantic valencies: the valency of the missing distance, the valency of the missing time span, and the valency of the missing quantity. The first type of valency was discovered by Juri Apresjan for accomplishment verbs like dobežat’ ≈ „run up to‟ as in On dvadcat’ šagov ne dobežal do ukrytija „he did not run the last twenty steps to the shelter‟. We report that the phenomenon is of a much broader nature and range: other types of predicates may develop the valency of the missing time span, as in Ona ne doučilas’ v universitete dva goda ≈ „she did not complete her education at the university, dropping out two years earlier‟, the valency of missing quantity, as in Emu nedoplatili tysjaču rublej „they underpaid him a thousand roubles‟, or, in sophisticated cases, more than one such valency.
We study how ambiguity and ambiguity attitudes affect asset prices when consumers form their expectations based on past observations. In an OLG economy with risk‐neutral yet ambiguity sensitive consumers, we describe limiting asset prices depending on the proportion of investor types. We then study the evolution of consumer type shares. With long memory, the market does not select for ambiguity‐neutrality. Whenever perceived ambiguity is sufficiently small, but positive, only pessimists survive and determine prices in the limit. With one‐period memory, equilibrium prices are determined by Bayesians. Yet, the average price of the risky asset is lower than its fundamental value.
This article presents a study of the regulatory role of emotional intelligence in decision-making in real-life situations and of the functioning of intellectual and personal potential using Emotional Anticipation Method (EAM). Expert psychologists used quality analysis techniques to develop a typology of the content characteristics of choices on a sample of military instructors (N = 79). It is important to note that our selective sample included professionals involved in actual professional activity, who are well aware of the consequences of using or ignoring emotional information in their professional activity. Characteristics of emotional intelligence (EI) and tolerance to ambiguity in the system of predictors of personal choice were considered. The hypothesis of discrepancy between the data obtained using objective measurements and EI questionnaires was confirmed. The results show difference between dispositional and situational con- texts of inclusion of EI in the regulation of choices. For each task, we obtained proofs that subjects non-randomly selected one of the proposed alternatives and their choice was the closest to their personal solution. This allows us to consider alternatives designed as having high ecological validity. It was found that in the final answer, the use of illustrative tips led to an increase in the number of choices that minimise uncertainty in a given emotional context. Emotional intelligence serves as a prerequisite for effective use of illustrative tips. EAM procedure can be regarded as an indirect diagnostic tool for evaluation of certain aspects of emotional intelligence.
Manually annotated corpora are very important and very expensive resources: the annotation process requires a lot of time and skills. In Open- Corpora project we are trying to involve into annotation works native speakers with no special linguistic knowledge. In this paper we describe the way we organize our processes in order to maintain high quality of annotation and report on our preliminary results.
This work shows that being must originally be understood as implication. We begin with what Heidegger calls Hegel’s ‘new concept of being’ in the Phenomenology of Spirit: time as history is the essence of being. This concept however, is not univocal—for supersession means destroying-preserving. Hegel shows himself to be the thinker of truth as essentially ambiguous; and the Phenomenology is onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, the history of the being and unity, time and aspect, of the concept’s ambiguity. For Heidegger however, conceptual ambiguity confirms that Hegel’s history of being is stuck in a vulgar interpretation of time; and the Phenomenology can explain neither the origin of this time, nor the necessity of negation for the historical determination of being—for Hegel cannot think the ground of the concept of being, that is, the grounding of the ground. If Heidegger argues however, that the Phenomenology is predetermined by its ancient point of departure, we must go back to the Greeks, back to Aristotle’s original insight (overlooked by the entire history of philosophy as metaphysics): being and unity imply one another—for they are essentially implications. Thus the question of the meaning of being becomes the question of the meaning of implication.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.