Approximation by Entire Functions on a Countable Set of Continua
The problem of approximation by entire functions of exponential type defined on a countable set E of continua Gn, E = ⋃n∈ZGn⋃n∈ZGn is considered in this paper. It is assumed that all Gn are pairwise disjoint and are situated near the real axis. It is also assumed that all Gn are commensurable in a sense and have uniformly smooth boundaries. A function f is defined independently on each Gn and is bounded on E and f (r) has a module of continuity ω which satisfies the condition (1). An entire function Fσ of exponential type ≤σ is then constructed so that the following estimate of approximation of the function f by functions Fσ is valid
In this paper, an approximation of functions of extensive classes set on a countable unit of segments of a real axis using the entire functions of exponential type is considered. The higher the type of the approximating function is, the higher the rate of approximation near segment ends can be made, compared with their inner points. The general approximation scale, which is nonuniform over its segments, depending on the type of the entire function, is similar to the scale set out for the first time in the study of the approximation of the function by polynomials. For cases with one segment and its approximation by polynomials, this scale has allowed us to connect the so-called direct theorems, which state a possible rate of smooth function approximation by polynomials, and the inverse theorems, which give the smoothness of a function approximated by polynomials at a given rate. The approximations by entire functions on a countable unit of segments for the case of Hölder spaces have been studied by the authors in two preceding papers. This paper significantly expands the class of spaces for the functions, which are used to plot an approximation that engages the entire functions with the required properties.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.
Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.