The measurement of “interdisciplinarity” and “synergy” in scientific and extra‐scientific collaborations
Problem solving often requires crossing boundaries, such as those between disciplines. When policy‐makers call for “interdisciplinarity,” however, they often mean “synergy.” Synergy is generated when the whole offers more possibilities than the sum of its parts. An increase in the number of options above the sum of the options in subsets can be measured as redundancy; that is, the number of not‐yet‐realized options. The number of options available to an innovation system for realization can be as decisive for the system's survival as the historically already‐realized innovations. Unlike “interdisciplinarity,” “synergy” can also be generated in sectorial or geographical collaborations. The measurement of “synergy,” however, requires a methodology different from the measurement of “interdisciplinarity.” In this study, we discuss recent advances in the operationalization and measurement of “interdisciplinarity,” and propose a methodology for measuring “synergy” based on information theory. The sharing of meanings attributed to information from different perspectives can increase redundancy. Increasing redundancy reduces the relative uncertainty, for example, in niches. The operationalization of the two concepts—“interdisciplinarity” and “synergy”—as different and partly overlapping indicators allows for distinguishing between the effects and the effectiveness of science‐policy interventions in research priorities.
Hi-tech innovative alliances tend to have more key sustainable competitive advantages in comparison with those out of alliance, especially because alliances allow the companies to switch through the partners the financial burdens and intellectual investments in innovations. BRIC make an important input into Gross World Production and its hi-tech industries grow faster than others over developing countries. However companies of these industries still lack internal resources of innovative and technological facilities, e.g. Russian companies, because of that alliances (usually, international anв transnational) acquire more and more popularity. Alliances give the access towards resources and competences of the direct and indirect partners. The paper describes the empirical evidence of alliances efficiency factors and its influence on the high-tech companies of India and China. This evidence can be replicable to some extent and useful to the development of Russian companies. According to the testing results it is possible to assume, that efficiency of alliances has the significant impact on the corporate value in the mid-term. The crisis has significant impact on the observable dependencies.
This article analyzes the unique synergy of creative activity of ETA Hoffmann as a manifestation of deep-rooted allusive relations within the multifaceted world of creative personality. The author shows how the writer compares and combines different kinds of art: the composer's art and creative writing, the pictorial art and the art of speech – and this fusion is by no means arbitrary. The author points out that a creative interpretation of the impact of the arts on the human anticipated many modern trends in psychology (including the psychology of creativity).
The aim of the paper is to discuss different approaches to the toponyms and their usefulness for the study of the historical culture in the urban space. In this discussion author adresses Soviet toponimical heritage and particularly to the case of "Sovietskaya street" which is rather common for (Post) Soviet cities.
This paper discusses the legacy of Nikolai Antsiferov (1889–1958), a Russian historian who suggested a unique approach to urban studies in which literature played the key role. In the first section of this paper, the genesis of Antsiferov‘s conceptions of the study of urban history and the image of the city are outlined. The second section provides an analysis of his ideas on the literary image of St. Petersburg and the theory of literary-themed guided tours, which were articulated in his works of the 1920s. The finalsection of the article sheds light on the reception and legacy of Antsiferov‘s intellectual ideas in the modern humanities and assesses its significance in the modern context of interdisciplinarity.
The article concentrates on the analysis of new tendencies in the theoretical foundations of historical sociology in the incoming new century. It focuses on the so called “third wave” in sociology which strangely remains unnoticed by historians. Meanwhile the representatives of the “third wave” rejected the fundamental principles of their teachers – creators of many famous concepts of modernization. The new generation in American sociology prefers to focus their studies on topics other than typology, searching for contingency, unpredictability, chains of events, path dependency etc. Here in conceptual approaches to the past social reality we find out deliberate and thought-out attempt to use transformed and formalized but essentially historical methods which are well articulated. The broader object of the research is the historical knowledge and the professional concepts about “subject and method”, the creation of interdisciplinary areas, mutual adoption and interventions.
Main concepts and models of the modern theory of self-organization of complex systems, called also synergetics, are generalized and formulated in the book as principles of a synergetic world view. They are under discussion in the context of philosophical studies of holism, teleology, evolutionism as well as of gestalt-psychology; they are compared with some images from the history of human culture. The original and unfamiliar (to the Western readers) research results of the Moscow synergetic school which has its center at the Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences are expounded in the book. The heuristic value of the synergetic models of evolution and self-organization of complex systems in epistemology and cognitive psychology, education and teaching, futures studies, social management activities and systems of global security is shown in the book. Complicated and paradoxical concepts of synergetics (structure-attractors, bifurcations, blow-up regimes, non-stationary dissipative structures of self-organization, fractals, non-linearity) are translated into an intelligible language and vividly illustrated by materials and examples from various fields of knowledge, starting with the laser thermonuclear fusion and concluding with mysterious phenomena of human psychology and creativity. The style of writing is close to that of popular-science literature. That's why the book might be of interest and is quite comprehensible for students and specialists in the humanities.
Repina L.P. Theoretical innovations in modern historiography Summary: The paper analyses the radical transformations that took place in the theoretical foundations, methodology and conceptual models of historical science on the eve of the XXI century. The changes in research strategies of recent historiography are considered as an outcome of the fruitful interaction of different disciplines in the common space of social sciences and humanities. The author estimates the cognitive potential of new theoretical models aiming to restore the integrity of historical vision of the past.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.