Новая предпринимательская политика для России после кризиса 2020 года
Nowadays the unpredictability and nonlinearity of macroeconomic processes
is growing, due to the technological changes, the increasing economic complexity,
and the environmental risks. The development of small and medium enterprises
(SMEs) is considered as one of the tools for adapting to these processes. The
decline in entrepreneurial activity can finally lead to long-term consequences.
Thus, many countries introduce the entrepreneurial support policy. Our review
shows that in the face of weak development of public control institutions, direct
financial measures can lead to new institutional traps. This forms a need for new
and alternative approaches to entrepreneurship policy. The purpose of the paper
is to justify and describe an alternative entrepreneurial policy for developing
countries, based on the concept of entrepreneurial ecosystems. The goals and
principles of the ecosystem approach formulated in the article. They were used
to identify new directions and evaluate existing measures of Russian entrepreneurship
policy: local authorities and business agents are poorly motivated, local
characteristics are not always taken into account, there is a distrust between
contractors, support institutions are not open enough, direct support is mainly
provided. As a result, the role of the sector in the economy is consistently low
and declining. The new approach can become the basis for post-crisis policy in
the context of reducing natural resource rent.
This paper argues that understanding the business environment in Russia requires putting the government front and center. In response to economic crisis and falling oil prices, the Russian government has gone on the offensive. Through the use of targeted subsidies, protectionist policies, and procedural reforms, it has worked to stem economic collapse and prop up economic production. Some of these efforts have had a tangible impact on the way business is conducted in Russia, though the list of obstacles private firms still must maneuver is sizable.
However, the most important development over the last decade has been the state’s direct takeover of valuable economic assets and the creation of massive state-owned enterprises (SOEs). This (re)nationalization jeopardizes the economic viability of many private firms by concentrating wealth and opportunities in a small group of well-connected SOEs. Private companies have adapted to this reality by devising a set of political strategies to ensure favorable treatment from the government. From mobilizing their workers during elections to running their directors for political office, these companies understand that remaining on good terms with the government is key to survival. Urgent structural reforms are needed to unwind the government’s role in the economy. Without changes, political connections will remain paramount to generating profits in Russia.
These are the proceedings of the International Workshop on Petri Nets and Software Engineering (PNSE’13) and the International Workshop on Modeling and Business Environments (ModBE’13) in Milano, Italy, June 24–25, 2013. These are co-located events of Petri Nets 2013, the 34th international conference on Applications and Theory of Petri Nets and Concurrency.
PNSE'13 presents the use of Petri Nets (P/T-Nets, Coloured Petri Nets and extensions) in the formal process of software engineering, covering modelling, validation, and veriﬁcation, as well as their application and tools supporting the disciplines mentioned above.
ModBE’13 provides a forum for researchers from interested communities to investigate, experience, compare, contrast and discuss solutions for modeling in business environments with Petri nets and other modeling techniques.
The article explains and interprets the results of Russian business environment survey conducted by the new sociological tool – Business Environment Development Index.
What role does the business play in economic growth? What circumstances are necessary for the stable business development? Recent literature focuses on the factors of business environment promoting or constraining firm growth. Using the country aggregate values of the firm-level World Bank Enterprise Survey (WBES) data on the subjective estimates of the business obstacles 128 countries are classified into six clusters. Due to the fact that firms report many obstacles to growth the contributions of 13 obstacles to business environment are recalculated for understanding the major business constraints. Lastly, cross tables analysis finds that there is a correlation between the prevalence of the business obstacles and national income growth, export growth, high-technology export. The results have important implications for the priority of reforms. Corruption, electricity and tax rates are the main business constraints in the world. Moreover, access to finance and competition in the informal sector of economy are also the major obstacles for business in the part of the countries.
Peculiarities of making of managerial decisions in modern business systems, predetermined by observation of the basic principles, are shown: constant monitoring of external environment for determining new possibilities and actual problems and determining the need for managerial decisions; founding on materials of marketing research, conduct of marketing communications for informing and supporting loyalty of interested parties in the process of implementation of decisions; and striving for increasing or at least preserving the uniqueness and effectiveness of business system during decision making (criterion of optimality of decisions).
International experience demonstrates that successful development of national economy is inseparably linked with the use of innovation potential of small business – the most dynamical and flexible sector of economic activity. However, in order to use the maximum extent possible and, consequently, increase the economic return it is necessary to have a profound array of realistic and operational information that includes numerous aspects and entrepreneurial behavior’s motivation. Within a post-crisis business environment its role in socioeconomic development of the country has significantly increased and pointed out the necessity and relevance of researches that study and analyze business climate. Available Russian statistical data collection reflecting the condition of small business primarily from a quantitative point of view is insufficient not only because of its coverage but also because of estimation methods, which reduces the possibilities of analysis of current changes. Unfortunately, modern studying and analyzing methods of considered subjects show an obvious informational gap in researches that are based on the regular environment surveys. Application of this tool is especially significant for the economy in the circumstances because of the limited opportunities to complete economic information by means of existing quantitative statistical practices. This paper presents a complex analysis of business climate in the manufacturing industries in 2013. The research is based on sample business environment surveys of more than 2.5 thousand small businesses in the field of industry (sections C, D, and E of the Russian Classification of Economic Activities) conducted by the Federal State Statistics Service for 2008-2013.
Technological modernization remains to one of the main problems of the Russian economy. Appreciably it is reduced to a problem of the “subject of modernization” – presence of institutional agents in the Russian business environment, which would have motivation and abilities to invest in development of national innovation system. There is a significant amount of economic spheres in which private interests of business coincide with strategic interests of an economy only partially or don’t coincide absolutely. Technological modernization is one of such problem spheres, which requires additional tools to stimulate the investors. So, there is a key question, concerning possibilities, directions and tools of investment activity regulation in direction of strategic interests of national economy.
The paper is devoted to the question of the influence of the organizational human capital on the innovation activity of enterprises and also to problems and prospective of development of this kind of human capital. The author proves it’s expedient to develop the organizational human capital of the enterprises with the help of the research and education centers, combining resources of innovation-active universities in the region and implementing long-term partnership with client companies.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.