Модель эволюции предпочтений
Evolution of political preferences occurs under the influence of institutions and some other factors. The term “political” was chosen just for concreteness and brevity of exposition. The results can be easily extended to some other social preferences and supporting institutions. In this model at the setup an individual joins a party but as time progresses she adjusts her endogenous political views accordingly with her utility function. Dynamics governing changes are provided by a partial differential equation similar to a diffusion equation. Party allegiance changes are random and they take the form similar to mutations in biology. The steady-state distributions on the political spectrum interval can be described by the Airy functions. Initial uniform distribution of individuals on the political spectrum interval is influenced by the governing party and the two political groups that emerge in society (“left” and “right’ political movements). Finally distribution becomes three peaked with the maximum distribution values coinciding with the formally declared political doctrines of the institutions. In the steady-state the share of the central party members will relatively increase compared with the other individuals.
Key words: evolution of preferences, political doctrine, steady-state distribution, eigenvalues problem.
To what extent can democratic competence of citizens be reached? The main aim of the article is to determine a conception of democratic competence against the background of the contradiction between public and private interests and between rationality and morality by developing a political preference. The research methodology of the article suggests a comparative analysis of deliberative democracy and liberal democracy theoris in terms of political preference formation.
August 1998 caused a considerable decline of the population's standard of living. At the same time, the reaction of Russian society to the crisis and its consequences was considerably mild. The outburst of strikes appeared to be weak and public mood began noticeably improving already since the second half of October. The scale and duration of the improvement of public mood demonstrate the presence of factors softening negative processes in the social sphere and ensuring the Russians' adaptation to the post-crisis conditions that are far from comfortable. The data of VCIOM Monitoring enable to examine in more or less detail the following two factors: a decrease in the level of economic demands and a high level of confidence in Ye. Primakov's government.
The paper is a quantitative study of the interaction between religiosity and attitudes towards sexual minorities that can be regarded as a manifestation of social conservatism. The aim of the research is to identify significant differences in attitudes towards homosexuals among believers and nonbelievers, those who attend religious services regularly and those who “believe without belonging”. Country specifics of the interaction are in the focus of analysis, as well as the differences among Orthodox Christians from different European countries. Statistical analysis results suggest that in Western, Northern and Southern Europe differences among religious groups in attitudes towards homosexuals are stable and significant while Russia and Eastern Europe demonstrate only weak differences among confessions and no effect of the degree of religiosity on one’s approval of sexual minorities.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.