Наставления для победителей и побежденных в трагедии Сенеки "Агамемнон"
This article provides a historico-pedagogical and historico-cultural commentary on the tragedy “Agamemnon“, which modern academics consider to be an example of Seneca’s innovative dramaturgy. In the tragedy, Seneca presents the original version of the famous myth about the murder of king Agamemnon, who had just returned victorious from the Trojan war. Seneca takes Aeschylus’s version of the same name as the basis for his own tragedy and presents the crime against Agamemnon as a deserved punishment and as a warning to those around him.
Aeschylus’ “Persae” is obviously the first case of massed invasion of a foreign language stuff into Greek. There are lots of Persian / Iranian words and personal names in ”Persae”, but we try to pay our special attention to only one of them: ¡brob£tai (verse 1073), which to the Greek mind would mean “soft-stepping”. In the context of Aeschylus’ tragedy, the epithet seems somewhat strange, because Xerxes himself applies it to Persian high officials and aldermen. This word was the subject of a special research by R. SCHMITT (1975), who refused to recognise its Persian / Iranian prototype and resumed the ancient scholiast’s claim: “to interpret Aeschylus from Aeschylus”. We do agree with this claim, but at the same time we suppose that there is some “Iranian” element which shines forth through the apparently Greek word-form ¡brob£tai. Our hypothesis is rather simple: Greek ¡brob£thj corresponds to Persian *apara-pati, that is, “younger/ lower ruler”, which, in its turn, could have been a title of high-rank courtier. On the other hand, Aeschylus intentionally fills his tragedy with words beginning on (h)abro-. While ¡brosÚnh was a feature of Ionian aristocratic style of life, the names of Persian princes slain at Thermopyles were hellenized in Greek tradition as Abrokomes (Aparakama?) and Hyperanthes (Hubaranta?). It makes part of Aeschylus’ conscious strategy of transposing the Greek-Persian “Sprachkrieg” into civil conflict between aristocracy and democracy in Greece itself. That is to say, foreign words, such as ¡brob£tai, served Aeschylus as a shell covering his own ideas and as a means of creating “tragic ambiguity”.
During the period of the so-called Silver age of Russian culture, three outstanding translators of the Greek tragedy, Tadeusz Zieliński, Innokentiy Annensky and Vyacheslav Ivanov, put forward the idea of the third, Slavonic Renaissance – the new rebirth of Antiquity, with the leading role of the Slavic peoples, particularly the Russians. They claimed that while the first Renaissance was Romanesque and the second German (in the era of Winckelmann, Goethe and German classical philology), the third one was supposed to be Slavonic. In the early Soviet period, the idea of Slavonic Renaissance brought about some unexpected results, first of all precisely in the sphere of theater. The paper focuses on how symbolist ideas got to be expressed in the performances of classical tragedies. Ivanov authored the expression “creative self-performance” that later, in the Soviet era, acquired the meaning of “non-professional performance,” such as comedies staged by “sailors and the Red Army soldiers,” Adrian Piotrovsky’s “amateur theatre,” and the pioneer reconstruction of the scenic performance of Aristophanes’ comedies done by Sergey Radlov, Adrian Piotrovsky, and others.
According to the well-known tradition, Clytemnestra murdered Agamemnon with a double-edged axe; this tradition was followed by Vyacheslav Ivanov and Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff. Although the murder weapon in Aeschylus’ tragedy «Agamemnon» is not specified, the double axe constantly occurs in Russian translation made by V. Ivanov. These passages are examined in the first part of the article. The second part discusses Ivanov’s essays and other works in order to shed the light on the symbolical meaning of the double axe within his conception of dionysism and the birth of tragedy. The author concludes that Ivanov emphasized the double axe as the weapon of Agamemnon’s murderess because he regarded it as a symbol connected with the sacrifice in predionysian cult and as an instrument of its priestess.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.