Секторальные особенности интеграции российской экономики в глобальные цепочки добавленной стоимости и следствия для структурной политики
Features of the country's integration into global production today best reflect its competitive advantages and growth prospects. This paper provides an analysis of long-term trends in the features of the integration of the Russian economy into global value chains (GVCs). Three cases of industrial upgrading in forestry, food and chemical industries are analyzed. In the case of a significant lag in the industry from the global technological frontier, attracting foreign investment and importing technology is the easiest way to integrate the economy into GVCs. For end-user-oriented sub-sectors, this means quick adaptation of organizational and marketing innovations, satisfaction of changing consumer preferences, and the formation of new markets and market niches. Moreover, based on the best practices of Russian and foreign companies, the technological level of lagging domestic companies may advance. For sub-sectors focused on intermediate goods, the introduction of technologies can determine an increase in the depth of redistribution in the sector and the subsequent increase in the production capacities of domestic companies based on the best practices of foreign companies.
For successful implementation of inclusive and sustainable industrial development (ISID) in the framework of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) UNIDO acts as a global forum for the establishment of relevant international standards, including on industrial statistics. In this format, UNIDO implements a regional project “Improvement of industrial statistics and development of indicators of industrial performance for policy-relevant analysis in CIS countries”. The main objective of the project is to provide methodological assistance to national statistical offices in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries in introducing international standards on industrial statistics to statistical practice and forming modern and internationally comparable statistical information to display industrial development processes. Therefore, it was necessary to assess reliability, timeliness and international comparability of official statistics of Rosstat and other national statistical offices of the CIS countries, so the analytical part is done mainly based on the official data sources. This paper is based on the intermediate results of statistical analysis of the analytical module of UNIDO project
Two problems associated with the adequacy of traditional methods for describing the national economy as an object of study are considered. The first of them is due to the fact that technological progress leads to a decrease in the degree of representativeness of traditional macroeconomic indicators, i.e. to reduce the degree of representativeness of generally accepted methods of describing the economy. The second problem is related to the erosion of the borders of the national economy in connection with the processes of globalization, which leads to the fact that the national economy is gradually losing its representativeness as an object of study.
The article reviews the main trends of “business patriotism tizma "in Russia. Then, in the light of identified trends, an assessment is given development potential of small and medium enterprises, the share of port substitution of goods of various categories, areas of investment online streams of Russian entrepreneurs.
The article describes the main features and parameters of the shadow economy, with a bird eye over Russian economy as an example. The description of the technological coefficient in the framework of V.K. Dmitrieff - W. Leontieff is given. Specific (originated from Political Economy) point of view as to relation of commodities - as (still) one of the key elements of an economic system - is formulated and established. .
The paper explores the relationship between the import of semi-finished products and means of production and the export of high-tech products in Russian manufacturing companies. The key question of the research is whether the export of high-tech products is connected with the import of complex components and semi-finished products. The study confirms that the export of high-tech products is determined by the import of high-tech semi-finished products for the export-intensive Russian manufacturing companies. The research does not find any relationship between the import of equipment and means of production and the export of high-tech products. This has important implications for Russia’s structural policy aimed at expanding exports of high-tech products. First, introducing protectionist measures in relation to the import of foreign components should take place gradually to allow companies to adapt to the new conditions. Secondly, they should proceed selectively in order to allow access of Russian exporters to critical components and means of production that have no Russian counterparts.
To help countries achieve their full industrialization potential and fulfil the sustainable development goals (SDGs) and thereby improve their general welfare, UNIDO is promoting the concept of comprehensive and sustainable industrial development (ISID), which was established in the Lima Declaration adopted by UNIDO Member States on 2 December 2013. The UN General Assembly recognizes the significance of ISID as an important strategic direction for fostering global development in the future. ISID is a key instrument for achieving sustainable economic growth, the creation of quality jobs, the building of equal societies, the protection of the environment, and the active shaping of comprehensive sustainable globalization. The promotion of ISID as the key driver for successful integration of economic, social and environmental factors necessary to achieve full implementation of sustainable development by creating and improving countries’ industrial potential is the main priority of UNIDO’s current activities. To successfully implement ISID, UNIDO acts as a global forum for industrial development and the establishment of relevant international standards, including standards on industrial statistics [UNIDO, 2014; 2013a]. Accordingly, UNIDO has been implementing the regional project “Improvement of industrial statistics and development of statistical indicators for the analysis of industrial development in the CIS countries” since 2013. The project’s main objective is to provide methodological assistance to the Commonwealth of Independent States’ (CIS) national statistical services in implementing international standards on industrial statistics in the statistical practice and presentation of modern, internationally comparable information for a qualitative and reliable reflection of industrial development processes. This report presents the results of the statistical analysis describing the availability, quality and measurement capabilities of official statistics in the CIS countries accumulated over the period 2005-2014.