Gender differences in pay among university faculty in Russia
The study focuses on the issue of gender discrimination in pay among university faculty in Russia, a country with an exceptionally high share of female faculty in higher education. Using a comprehensive and nationally representative survey of university faculty, we found that although women in academia earn considerably less than men, gender inequality among university faculty is lower than in the non‐academic sector. The study shows that gender differences in pay can be mainly explained by vertical gender segregation: women are less likely to achieve senior positions in the university hierarchy, which brings a high wage premium. Another explanation is horizontal segregation, when there is a prevalence of male faculty in Moscow‐based universities, which provide a considerable wage premium compared to regional ones. A decomposition of the gender wage gap shows that slightly more than half of it can be explained by observable factors, while the rest can be attributed to discrimination and unobservable characteristics. Within the unexplained part the major part can be attributed to favoritism towards men and the minor part to discrimination against women. We found some evidence that faculty in research universities, which actively implement performance‐related pay, experience less gender inequality.
The introduction of an effective contract into the Russian public sector was due to the need to ensure compliance regarding wages and the quality of services provided. A review of existing studies on contract relationships within academia and practices to stimulate publication activity in Russian and foreign universities has shown that the key factors influencing scientific activity by university teachers are internal motivation, favorable academic environment, and relationships in a team. This paper analyzes two systems of stimulation of publication activity in higher education: a rating of scientific activity and a system of the effective contract. To analyze the introduction of an effective contract in educational organizations, researchers primarily use methods of content analysis of normative legal acts and sociological surveys. Based on data about the publication activity of teachers of the Institute over 6 years (3 years before the introduction of an effective contract and 3 years after), the authors conducted an econometric study of the impact of an effective contract on the quantity and quality of publications. To test the hypothesis the authors used a fixed effect model, a random effects model, and pooled ordinary least squares and least squares dummy variable. In this article the authors suggest a methodology for assessing the impact of an effective contract on the publication activity of university teachers. The authors conclude that salary and incentive payments, as well as participation in conferences and teacher training, have had a significant positive impact on the number of publications. The quality of publications was significantly influenced by incentive payments and professional development. The introduction of an effective contract had an impact only on the total number of publications.
This paper evaluates the design of current contractual incentive mechanisms in Russian universities after recent significant contractual reforms in the national academic sector. We employ the theoretical framework of incentive contracts in order to identify and assess performance measures of university faculty determining the total income received from teaching, research and administrative duties. We show that for the entire sample, faculty salary is positively associated with publication activity. Teaching is significant only for the entire sample, but not significant for research-oriented universities and HEIs with no special status. Administrative duties (expressed in the position held) are positively related to faculty pay: the largest effect is for rectors and vice-rectors, but for deans and heads of departments or laboratories the effect is also strong. Heads of universities and structural units receive a significant bonus for their administrative position. For research-oriented universities the largest effect in publication activity is for the number of papers in high ranking journals. In universities with no research status we discovered a significant gender gap: the male faculty earn more than their female colleagues. There is a positive linear relationship between salary and seniority for the entire sample and in universities with no special status.
This paper investigates the role of managerial ownership and incentive payment as potential drivers of innovation decisions by firms and as shifters of the competition-innovation link in Russian manufacturing industry, where poorly protected property rights and path dependent market structure (typical for many transition economies) leads to a variety of outcomes. We use recent survey-based microdata for nearly 2000 non-listed companies in Russia. Our results suggest that managerial ownership, which initially evolved as a means of protecting against and resisting dysfunctional institutions, may stimulate decisions to undertake R&D and risky product innovations. Futher, managerial ownership and competition are complementary motivations for R&D and innovation. Incentive payment to hired managers. Incentive payment to hired managers is a positive commitment instrument but it has no impact on competition-innovation link.