Macro- and microstructural changes in cosmonauts’ brains after long-duration spaceflight
Long-duration spaceflight causes widespread physiological changes, although its effect on brain structure remains poorly understood. In this work, we acquired diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to investigate alterations of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compositions in each voxel, before, shortly after, and 7 months after long-duration spaceflight. We found increased WM in the cerebellum after spaceflight, providing the first clear evidence of sensorimotor neuroplasticity. At the region of interest level, this increase persisted 7 months after return to Earth. We also observe a widespread redistribution of CSF, with concomitant changes in the voxel fractions of adjacent GM. We show that these GM changes are the result of morphological changes rather than net tissue loss, which remained unclear from previous studies. Our study provides evidence of spaceflight-induced neuroplasticity to adapt motor strategies in space and evidence of fluid shift– induced mechanical changes in the brain.
Humans are unique in developing large lexicons as their communication tool; to achieve this, they are able to learn new words rapidly. However, neural bases of this rapid learning, which may be an expression of a more general cognitive mechanism likely rooted in plasticity at cellular and synaptic levels, are not yet understood. In this update, the author highlights a selection of recent studies that attempted to trace word learning in the human brain noninvasively. A number of brain areas, most notably in hippocampus and neocortex, appear to take part in word acquisition. Critically, the currently available data not only demonstrate the hippocampal role in rapid encoding followed by slow-rate consolidation of cortical word memory traces but also suggest immediate neocortical involvement in the word memory trace formation. Echoing early behavioral studies in ultra-rapid word learning, the reviewed neuroimaging experiments can be taken to suggest that our brain may effectively form new cortical circuits online, as it gets exposed to novel linguistic patterns in the sensory input.
Language is a uniquely human cognitive function which plays a defining role in our psychological and social traits. Despite the obvious importance of language and speech, they remain one of the least understood human cognitive functions with the cortical underpinnings of these crucial skills still obscure. In recent decades, a large amount of data that account for the neural bases of language processes in both children and adults have been acquired through the use of many advanced neurophysiology techniques. These include high-density electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, functional magnetic-resonance tomography, transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and eye-tracking. The combined use of these approaches continues to shed light on brain mechanisms of language acquisition, comprehension and processing, on speech disorders and their treatment, and on interactions between language and other neurocognitive systems and functions. The aim of this Research Topic in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience is to provide a state-of-the-art overview of this diverse and multidisciplinary area of research, with special emphasis on bridging the gap between different methodologies.
The degree of mental attention in childhood and adolescence determines in the future the effectiveness of working memory (ability to store and manipulate information). Attention has been previously found to be related to the prefrontal and parietal areas of the human cortex. But the relationship between attention and white matter properties are still largely unknown. The goal of this study was to identify the relationships between attention and fractional anisotropy (FA) of diffusion MRI in bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculus (in three subdivisions SLF 1- 3), arcuate fasciculus (AF), and corpus callosum (CC) in children and adolescents. Subjects: 14 children (9-11 years) and 13 teenagers (12-15 years). During the experiments participants had to establish a match between the colors on the screen and the colors on the previous slide. The task had six difficulty levels and both performance accuracy (m-score) and reaction time (RT) were measured. There was a positive correlation for m-score and a negative correlation for RT with FA in СС (levels 1-3) in the children's group (p<0.05). On the contrary, when FA increases in the right SLF 3 (level 6), there is a decrease in m-score, and when FA increases in the left SLF 3 and AF, there is an increase in RT at 2,3,4 and 6 levels. In contrast, a decrease in RT with an increase FA of bilateral SLF 3 (level 6) and left AF (level 4) was observed for adolescents, which reflects the redistribution of the roles between fiber tracts with age. FA values of the left (level 2) and right (level 1) SLF 2 negatively correlated with mscore (p <0.05) in the same group. For females (n=13) (regardless the age), there was only a negative correlation for m-score (2,3,5 levels) and the only positive correlation for RT (level 2) with FA of the right SLF 1, left and right SLF 2, in the left SLF 3 and СС (p<0.05). For males (n=13), on the contrary, there were positive correlations between m-score and FA of the СС (1,3,4 levels) and the left SLF 1 (5 level), and inverse correlations between RT and FA for the same fibers of the white matter (1 level) (p<0,05). Interestingly, an increase in FA with age was found in males in all the components of the white matter (p<0.01), except for the СС, and in females, on thecontrary – only in the СС. Further research is needed, taking into account gender, to fully understand the influence of white matter on the development of mental attention.
Proceedings of the conference "Cognitive Science in Moscow: New Research" (June 19, 2019).
The XVI international interdisciplinary Congress "Neuroscience for medicine and psychology" continues the cycle of scientific events (High Tatras, Slovakia, 2002 and 2003; Karadag, Crimea, Ukraine, 2002 and 2003; Hurghada, Egypt, 2004, Sudak, Crimea, Ukraine, 2004-2013, Sudak, Crimea, Russia, 2014-2019), which are dedicated to the multi-faceted study of the nervous system and the use of this knowledge in medical and psychological practice. The main goal of the forum is to unite the efforts of highly qualified and young specialists of the scientific community who study the nervous system from different points of view to preserve the biological and mental health of people in the modern world. As part of the Congress, the School "Achievements of interdisciplinary neuroscience in the XXI century" is held with lectures and reports by leading scientists. The following issues will be discussed at the sessions of the Congress sections: stress and neurosis, memory, learning, thinking and consciousness, neuronal mechanisms of cognitive processes, Neurotechnology and cognitive
Connectivity measures are (typically bivariate) statistical measures that may be used to estimate interactions between brain regions from electrophysiological data. We review both formal and informal descriptions of a range of such measures, suitable for the analysis of human brain electrophysiological data, principally electro- and magnetoencephalography. Methods are described in the space–time,space–frequency, and space–time–frequency domains. Signal processing and information theoretic measures are considered, and linear and nonlinear methods are distinguished. A novel set of crosstime–frequency measures is introduced, including a cross-time–frequency phase synchronization measure.
This book presents the results of analysis of human capital in Murmansk and Archangelsk regions, republics of Komi and Karelia, and Nenets Autonomous Region. The authors considered migration processes and their trends; some of these were analyzed at municipal level. Having taken in account the importance of life expectancy as a complex indicator of sustainable development, the authors identified the periods of its growth and decline. Age-specific differences were also scrutinized. The relative contributions of major causes of mortality in life expectancy at birth were estimated. The authors described the dynamics of population of small indigenous peoples of the North (Vepsians, Nenets, Komi), the problems associated with their self-identification, census administration, migration, childbirth and life expectancy. The authors analyzed climate change as the new health risk factor, which affects safety of food and drinking water, accessibility of medical services and specific practices of deer-herding. A separate chapter of the book is devoted to current and future trends in working-age population until 2002. Each territory of Barents Sea Region displayed its own peculiar behavior of this indicator. The authors compared selected social, economic and demographic indicators in European part of Russian Arctic with those in foreign countries which belong to Barents Sea Region. This monograph was a product of collaborative efforts of the researchers from Economic Forecasting Institute and Institute of Demography of Higher School of Economics. B. A. Revich, Doctor of Medicine, and B. N. Porfiryev, Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of Sciences, edited this book.
This prototype development explains the challenges encountered during the ISO/IEEE 11073 standard implementation process. The complexity of the standard and the consequent heavy requirements, which have not encouraged software engineers to adopt the standard. The developing complexity evaluation drives us to propose two possible implementation strategies that cover almost all possible use cases and eases handling the standard by non-expert users. The first one is focused on medical devices (MD) and proposes a low-memory and low-processor usage technique. It is based on message patterns that allow simple functions to generate ISO/IEEE 11073 messages and to process them easily. MD act as X73 agent. Second one is focused on more powerful device X73 manager, which do not have the MDs' memory and processor usage constraints. The protocol between Agent and Manager is point-to-point and we can distribute the functionality between devices.
Developed both implementation X73 Agent and Manager will cut developing time for applications based on ISO/EEE 11073.
In the internal medicine wide spectrum the gastroenterology is one of the chapters, less enlightened by the scientific evidence. It does not mean that the practice of the grasntroenterology may ot be improved by the systematic use of the approaches of the evidence based medicine