Мозговые механизмы нарушения модели психического при расстройствах аутистического спектра и шизофрении: обзор данных фМРТ
Theory of mind is a cognitive ability, which enables to understand intentions, emotions and beliefs of another person. Because of theory of mind, people are able to interpret behavior of others and adapt to it. Numerous psychiatric impairments are associated with damaged theory of mind and communication with others. The present review analyses the impairments of theory of mind as laying on a continuum from hypermentalization (overattribution of intentions to others) to hypomentalization (under-attribution of intentions to others) in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. FMRI paradigm of different subprocesses of theory of mind is described (perceptual mind-reading, cognitive theory of mind, “hot” theory of mind and implicit theory of mind). Neural mechanisms of these subprocesses and their impairments in autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia analyzed.