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Article

Понятие "открытость" в аналитике Dasein Мартина Хайдеггера: проблема определения

История философии. 2020. Т. 25. № 2.

A competent acquaintance with Martin Heidegger’s major works, such as “Being and Time”, is impossible without understanding the primeval methodological foundations of this German thinker, – or, in other words, without comprehending the principal connection between his existential analysis and the destruction of the European metaphysical knowledge. The inevitable connection of ontic and ontological levels of philosophical research reveals a hardly definable concept of Dasein, while the notion of “openness”, we are interested in, serves as a meaningful specification of Dasein.

In this paper, the notion of “openness” is analyzed in two aspects: from the point of a new understanding of the traditional metaphysical problems (the problems of being and entity, in particular) and from the point of a completely new substantiation of these problems (which eventually determines the Heidegger’s existential analysis as a fundamentally-ontological). Thus, the notion of “openness” is understood in the context of the problem of Being (not only Dasein). The phenomenon of openness itself is analyzed as a primordial phenomenon. The existential, "understanding", is ontologically examined in relation with the phenomenon of openness. Observing Heideggerian existential-ontological analysis of this phenomenon (primarily, in the aspect of “transcendence” and “truth”) this paper defines Dasein as a way of existence of Being as such.