Социокультурная среда в функционировании туристского кластера
Within the scope of spatial economics and economic geography, the social and cultural milieu of the tourism cluster is often considered to be an important driver of the cluster’s functioning. At the same time, the conceptual mechanism and conditions of the influence exerted by the milieu on the tourism cluster are still unclear. This theoretical gap hinders the development of a coherent policy to support the cluster. The main purpose of the present study is to develop a complex conceptual model of the social and cultural milieu influence on the tourism cluster. This model will further allow us to create a special methodology for investigating particular regional cases. Within the present research, we conducted a theoretical analysis (based on system and criteria methodology) of the social and cultural milieu in the scope of cluster theory. The analysis identified four modern approaches, which were considered to be ineffective in terms of the complex view formation. In view of that, we suggested a new approach of ‘tourism agglomeration’. Based on this approach, we described the conceptual mechanism of the social and cultural milieu influence on the tourism cluster (including behavioral and resource aspects of the mentioned effect). Using the created mechanism, we developed a new methodology of the influence investigation. The methodology was tested based on the case of the Perm region, which showed a number of behavioral problems connected with the associative culture of the existing tourism clusters. The problems mentioned tend to limit cluster development. Accordingly, we suggested some measures which are supposed to improve the situation.