Spillover effect in promotion: Evidence from video game publishers and eSports tournaments
Companies have increasingly used the promotion of their products through event marketing. However, empirical evidence on whether the events lead to higher sales is mixed. This study investigates the spillover effects of promotion in sales directly and through increasing popularity for global multiproduct firms. The research is carried out on data of the video game industry and eSports tournaments as events for the period of 1997–2015. The data is collected over 20 years, for product-by-product on game sales, events, genre, and location for all companies of the industry. The method of analysis is panel regression with fixed effects. The results support the positive impact of marketing through events in the videogame industry. A threshold number of about 80 eSports tournaments per year was found. Moreover, the existence of positive cross-product, cross-region, and cross-firm spillover effects was confirmed both for game popularity and sales. Videogames publishers should consider this when designing their promotion strategy.
The article is devoted to the problem of co-use of video games by children and their parents. The object of our investigation are father’s strategies of mediation of children video gaming within culture-historical approach and activity theory ( L.S. Vygotsky, A.N. Leontiev, P.Ya. Galperin). Despite some authors regard fathers as main protagonists of media use among family members, their role in co-use of video games still requires more through exploration. We assumed that family structure and relative position of father in it affect the strategies of mediation of children’s video gaming activities. 30 fatherchild dyads were chosen for in-depth interviewing. To evaluate father’s position within family structure we developed and used a graphic method “Family Model”. Collected data allowed to map out three groups of fathers and corresponding strategies of mediation of video gaming.
In this paper we suggest the first systematic review and com- pare performance of most frequently used machine learning algorithms for prediction of the match winner from the teams’ drafts in DotA 2 computer game. Although previous research attempted this task with simple models, weve made several improvements in our approach aiming to take into account interactions among heroes in the draft. For that pur- pose we’ve tested the following machine learning algorithms: Naive Bayes classifier, Logistic Regression and Gradient Boosted Decision Trees. We also introduced Factorization Machines for that task and got our best re- sults from them. Besides that, we found that model’s prediction accuracy depends on skill level of the players. We’ve prepared publicly available dataset which takes into account shortcomings of data used in previous research and can be used further for algorithms development, testing and benchmarking.
We present two examples of how human-like behavior can be implemented in a model of computer player to improve its characteristics and decision-making patterns in video game. At first, we describe a reinforcement learning model, which helps to choose the best weapon depending on reward values obtained from shooting combat situations. Secondly, we consider an obstacle avoiding path planning adapted to the tactical visibility measure. We describe an implementation of a smoothing path model, which allows the use of penalties (negative rewards) for walking through ``bad'' tactical positions. We also study algorithms of path finding such as improved I-ARA* search algorithm for dynamic graph by copying human discrete decision-making model of reconsidering goals similar to Page-Rank algorithm. All the approaches demonstrate how human behavior can be modeled in applications with significant perception of intellectual agent actions.
Sport event promoters aim to organize them to get the best return on their investment. The purpose of this study is to learn better how to manage the event to maximize the benefit to the host area. Most studies on economic impact of sporting events focus on mega events or look for an impact in medium to large size cities. This study estimates the effect of a two-day event, the Rally Ourense, that takes place in a small town in Spain. Economic impact is estimated based on surveys of spectators and interviews of competitors in the 2009, 2010, and 2011 editions of the rally. The results show that the race has favorable effects, but also suggest that the impact could be increased with some simple changes to the event structure.
This study provides readers with new information about key drivers of performance in the emerging area of eSports. Competitive computer gaming (eSports) is becoming increasingly popular, and the number of gamers and amount of prize money is growing. We therefore explore some key country-level characteristics that may contribute to players’ success, measured as money won. We use gamers’ prize earnings aggregated by country and a hurdle model to understand the determinants of performance. The results show that a 1% increase in GDP per capita leads to a 2.2% increase in prize money per capita. Country population is not statistically significant in the outcome model. This finding may indicate that eSports talents are not uniformly distributed across the world population. Surprisingly, post-Soviet and planned or post-planned economies are more likely to participate in eSports.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.