Where is the consumer center? A case of St. Petersburg
In an urban economy, the distribution of people and real estate prices depends on the location of the central business district of a city. As distance from the city center increases, both prices and population density diminish, for travel costs increase in terms of time and money. As manufacturing gradually leaves the cities, the importance of consumer amenities as attractors of population to the urban areas increases. The role of a business center is being replaced by the consumer center. In this paper, we identify the location of the consumer center of St. Petersburg — the second largest city in Russia and its former capital. For this purpose using the data from open sources in the Internet regarding the location of many different types of urban amenities, the indices of their spatial density are computed. Using the weights based on coefficients of spatial variation and survey-based weights, the individual indices are aggregated to two general centrality indices. Their unique maxima correspond to the city center of St. Petersburg, which is located on Nevsky prospekt, between Fontanka river and Liteinyi prospekt.
New Holland Island is a remarkable quarter in St. Petersburg not only for its central location and historical roots (it was created in 1720), but also for the fact that it has recently been given a new life in urban contexts. The story of New Holland is a story of transformation from ship-building constructions to perfect space for in-door and open-air cultural activities – with lawns and sun beds, leisure areas for adults and children, and residential areas for artists. One of the main features of the project is private ownership meaning that regeneration development strategy is formed by an investor.
Problems of social order, improvement of territories and social organization have been always acute all over the world. Scholars have provided enough evidence to talk about signi cant correlation between cues of social disorder and deviance and crime contextualized within certain historical and spatial environments. In this paper we will focus on the transformations of social (dis)order in connection with crime and landscape over time using St. Petersburg as a case-study.
Using empirical data from police reports and various characteristics of municipal ter- ritorial units of St. Petersburg we would like to verify the main hypothesis of the theory of social disorganization theory, that is, that the environment, in which the individual lives, has a signi cant impact on their behavior contextualized within normative models of so- cial order. The paper analyses the spatial distribution of crime by GIS and environmental determinants of deviations in various areas by OLS.
The paper consists of two parts. The rst part deals with historical landscapes of crime and social (dis)order in St. Petersburg (1703-1990) to highlight historically inherent models of spatial dynamics of crime characteristic of St. Petersburg as a “regular” city and a capital of the empire descended into a provincial town after 1924. The second part of the paper explains how these historical models (dis)continued in the 1990s and 2000s due to changing environments and advances in urban planning.
The paper aims to discuss the multifaceted links between the marine environment of the Gulf of Finland and the representations of the large complex of cultural heritage related to the city of St. Petersburg. The paper is based on a spatial imaginary of Greater St. Petersburg as the cultural and technological unity of the city and adjacent waterscapes in the times of the Russian Empire. This concept is instrumental to see the historical links between the parts of the heritage complex that has by now disintegrated and has been separated by state borders.
The article discusses the post-socialist developments of urban public space in St. Petersburg, Russia. The city with a historic center protected by the UNESCO World Heritage status in combination with the Soviet legacy of lack of public participation is facing the problem of public space development. There are two controversial concepts of urban space represented in the public discourse that are analyzed in the article: the concept of a ‘museum city’ and the ‘city for people’. The historic context of transformation (the Soviet period of the strict divide of public and private, and the post- socialist era of individualization and the decay of the public) is used to explain the current debate and difficulties of building an inclusive and tolerant model of public space in St. Petersburg.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.