РАДИАЦИОННЫЕ ПОЯСА В ПРОЦЕССЕ ИНВЕРСИИ МАГНИТНОГО ПОЛЯ ЗЕМЛИ
n the framework of the axisymmetric model, the changes in the shape of the radiation belts of the Earth and
energy spectra of charged particles in them during the inversion of the geomagnetic field. Areas
the sustainable existence of radiation belts are obtained analytically by a generalization of the theory
Shtermer in the case of an axisymmetric quadrupole. An inversion scenario is proposed in which
it is shown that gradual reduction of radiation belts can occur with a decrease
dipole component of the modern geomagnetic field. Space-energy
The distribution of proton and electron flux densities, which made it possible to determine the maximum
the maximum dose rate of radiation on various magnetic shells during the inversion process.
We study the problem of energy exchange between waves and particles, which leads to energization of the latter, in an unstable plasma typical of the radiation belts. The ongoing Van Allen Probes space mission brought this problem among the most discussed in space physics. A free energy which is present in an unstable plasma provides the indispensable condition for energy transfer from lower energy particles to higher-energy particles via resonant wave-particle interaction. This process is studied in detail by the example of electron interactions with whistler mode wave packets originated from lightning-induced emission. We emphasize that in an unstable plasma, the energy source for electron energization is the energy of other particles, rather than the wave energy as is often assumed. The way by which the energy is transferred from lower energy to higher-energy particles includes two processes that operate concurrently, in the same space-time domain, or sequentially, in different space-time domains, in which a given wave packet is located. In the first process, one group of resonant particles gives the energy to the wave. The second process consists in wave absorption by another group of resonant particles, whose energy therefore increases. We argue that this mechanism represents an efficient means of electron energization in the radiation belts.
In the time period (from 01.01.2007 till 31.12.2007), relating to the end phase of the 24th solar activity cycle decline (the minimum solar activity was observed in 2009), satellites orbiting outside the Earth’s magnetosphere provided information that variations have been registered of solar wind plasma speed, as well as of density, temperature and intensity of interplanetary magnetic field, and of galactic cosmic rays particle fluxes intensity. In the Earth’s outer radiation belt, the geostationary satellites registered intensity variations of electron fluxes with the electrons energy of several tens of keV to several MeV. The ground stations observed variations of geomagnetic activity indexes. The authors have showed that the maximum variation intensity of interplanetary medium parameters, geomagnetic activity indexes and ionizing radiation fluxes in the Earth’s outer radiation belt was observed at the speed of Sun rotation. The authors also have demonstrated that close to the Sun activity minimum, the intensity of particle flux (with the particles energy of 30 to 100 MeV) of galactic cosmic rays within the high speed recurrent stream of solar plasma was lower than in the surrounding space environment. The turbulence spectrum intensity of the interplanetary magnetic field within the high speed recurrent plasma stream has been demonstrated to be 10 times more than in the surrounding space environment.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
The Handbook of CO₂ in Power Systems' objective is to include the state-of-the-art developments that occurred in power systems taking CO₂ emission into account. The book includes power systems operation modeling with CO₂ emissions considerations, CO₂ market mechanism modeling, CO₂ regulation policy modeling, carbon price forecasting, and carbon capture modeling. For each of the subjects, at least one article authored by a world specialist on the specific domain is included.