Оценка конкурентоспособности транспортных компаний
Using the example of international road carriers, we consider approaches to assessing the complex indicator of competitiveness. Based on a sample of the performance results of the best transport companies from different countries, a comparison is made, and the factors that influence the change in indicators are determined. The best indicator values are set, which can serve as a guide for international road transportation companies. Based on the analysis of road transport performance indicators in the EEU countries, it was revealed that there are differences in the development of this type of activity, but all countries are characterized by an unsatisfactory state of the vehicle fleet. The change of generations of equipment in road transport is characterized by a short period, which is only 4 years, with an average change of 8-10 years. Problems with updating the car fleet lead to the fact that six generations of vehicles are simultaneously operating on the market. The paper offers a tool for determining the gap at the level of a country or individual enterprise from the market leaders.
The manual is intended for students of Department of computer engineering MIEM HSE. In the textbook based on the courses "Economics of firm" and "the development strategy of the organization." Discusses the key conceptual and methodological issues of the theory and practice of Economics and development planning of the organization. The use of textbooks will enable students: to analyze key performance indicators, and use the tools of strategic analysis with reference to concrete situations in contemporary Russian and international business. Special attention is paid to the methods and systems of information support of the life support functions of business organizations and management methodology of innovation and investment. An Appendix contains source data for analysis of competition in a particular industry.
The article studies the dependence of competitive intensity in a horizontal economic system on the specifics of this system. The analysis was carried out using agent-based modeling in the case of a conventional cluster. It has been shown that systems with the maximal intensity of internal competition operate in highly profitable fields and are characterized by high market concentration. Two fundamental processes that are often opposed to each other in clusters, namely competition and cooperation between agents, are linked within one model. We have found out that cost-free imitation of technologies generally does not affect competitive intensity within the cluster while costly imitation decreases internal competition. In both cases, the profitability factor is more significant than the structure one (or market concentration). Competitive intensity within low-profitable clusters with the prevalence of small business decreases as imitation costs grow. The highest level of competition under the costly interaction of cluster's participants, characterized by a different ability to sustain contacts, could be achieved in companies systems with more connections. In the clusters of this type, competitive intensity increases with growing imitation costs. We have demonstrated the possibility to achieve different combinations of competition and cooperation processes, which could be independent, contra- and co-directional under different conditions. These results confirm a necessity to consider the typological features of a managed object while developing regulatory mechanisms.
In modern economic literature there are many publications concerning innovative development of clusters and global value chains (GVCs). But still the interaction between these two structures is not studied completely. What are the main features and mechanisms of their interaction? Can clusters stimulate companies’ involvement in GVCs? Do they facilitate competition between participating companies and countries? These are just a few of those issues that are covered in the article. The efficiency of incorporation to GVCs depends both on the type of embedded cluster, and the management of particular links within the chain. In order to explain the cooperation between companies, the institutional approach is used, paying much attention to the issues of moral risks in the context of multiply goals, the effect of gauge, and the development of long-term relational contracts among agents. Thus, the recommendations concerning the role of clusters and GVCs for the raise of competitiveness of countries are provided with regard to the integrated research of global suppliers and customers’ motives.
The article deals with the problem of updating and continuous changes in business models of companies in dy-namic environment. Theoretical review on the subject shows the growing interest in the business models development not only for small innovative companies, but also forbig companies in traditional industries. Based on foreign publica-tions, authors examine the signals and the conditions under which companies shouldrealize innovations in their business model. Particular attention is paid to "3A" model that demonstrates how companies should reconfigure their business models.
The article addresses the problem of building bilingual competence of future customs officials as an integral part of their professional competence. The author analyzes professional requirements for professional language training of modern customs officials in the age of globalization and expanding economic and culturalties of Russia with foreign countries. She further comes to the conclusion that it is necessary to build multiculturalism in the course of foreign.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.