Тренд на цифровизацию: анализ состояния и тенденций развития розничной торговли в России
Based on the analysis of statistical data, specialized industry sources as well as the opinions of experts in retail business, it is suggested the stages of Russian retail development over the past decade. Defining crisis and decisive points made it possible to bring into the light the boundaries of each stage. Characterizing the features and events of the period under consideration let identify not only its key trends, but also the commonality of the activity directions of industry representatives. Understanding the conditions and trends in the country's retail industry allows us to determine the main measures for logistics and supply chain management transformation implemented by retail companies in Russia. Hence, the strategies used can be intimately determined and defined, and the directions of further retailing development is predicted.
In 2012, gross retail sales volumes finally reached and exceeded the pre-crisis period of 2008. The industry is fully recovered from the recession, and majors set new milestones for business growth. Therefore the important task for logisticians in retail companies is to analyze main stages and projections for industry development, strengths and weaknesses of chosen market strategies, its impact to decision making process within distribution network designing. The article presents the periodization of the development of retail trade in Russia, market performance and description of market leaders in the industry at the current stage, key market trends and major strategic concerns. All these aspects are considered by the author in linkage with logistics management, structure and configuration of distribution network for retail companies.
As other worldwide sourcing industries the retail sector is also prone to various forms of corruption. In particular large retail-chains doing business in developing countries are often faced with corrupt bureaucracy and struggle with dubious administrative processes. On the other hand the purchasing divisions of large retailers decide upon million dollar deals with their suppliers which may tempt manufacturers to pay bribes for winning the deal. While such forms of corruption may be found also for other businesses there are other practices which may be recognised as corruption which are typical in the retail sector. One of the most controversial discussions concerns the practice of so-called slotting fees which are charged to manufacturers as a contribution to the handling costs of the retailer. Since such fees are negotiated in secrecy and not broken down by categories of expenditure they are often seen as a bribery-like payment demanded for getting contracts or staying in business. In the following chapter we will analyze these practices from an economic perspective. We will provide some empirical findings on how such payments are assessed in practice and conclude with some ethical considerations concerning the practice and the effects of slotting fees.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.