Индустриализм и линии раскола в политической экономии
This article reveals the changes in meaning that the concept of the “classical school in political economy” experienced in the course of nineteenth-century industrialization. The development of liberal Anglo-French political economy is traced in its “optimistic” (Smith, Say) and “pessimistic” (Ricardo, Malthus) versions. An account is provided of the transformation of the liberal school into “orthodoxy”, which provided a theoretical justification for economic rivalry accompanied by indifference to the fate of the poor classes (laissez faire, apologetic Ricardianism, “Manchesterism”). Also provided is an account of the split within “orthodoxy”, a rift associated with the emergence of the concepts of the inevitability of crises of overproduction (Sismondi) and of the appropriation by capitalists of surplus value (Thompson). Particular attention is devoted to the fundamental difference between Marx’s interpretation of “classical political economy” and the concepts of the “classical school” in the bourgeois university tradition, including in Russia. Also noted is the influence exerted by the Saint Simon School on Marxian political economy at its formative stage.