Automatic detection of gaze convergence in multimodal collaboration: a dual eye-tracking technology
The paper analyses the advantages and limitations of the current technical solutions for dual eye-tracking
(DUET) in relation to the research questions from educational science about joint attention in a multimodal teaching/
learning collaboration. The insufficiency of the current systems for the analysis of multimodal collaboration is stated as the reviewed systems do not allow researchers to relate a participant’s eye movements to the video from their joint performance and accompanying gestures without time consuming manual coding. We describe a system of two low-cost Pupil-Labs eyetrackers and propose an open source utility DUET for Pupil that automatically produces synchronized gaze data in the shared system of coordinates. The data are available in the form of a video from the surface that is overlaid by gaze paths with supplementary sound waveforms and as textual data with synchronized coordinates of the two gazes. Our empirical evaluation of this technological solution reports 1.27 ° of visual angle as the spatial accuracy of the system after post-hoc calibration. The advantages, limitations, and further possible enhancments of the system are discussed.
Discrepancies in the evidence for the influence of joint attention on lexical acquisition seem to have two causes: the variety of possible lexical acquisition outcomes (formation of an association between an object and a word, or emergence of a unit of the symbolic system) and variety in the contents of joint attention (the act of naming, the using of an object, events involving the object). In this study, we varied the moment when an object was named (familiarization with the object; using the object; removing the object). We suppose that providing children with referential intention cues, which are involved in an object’s familiarization, facilitates their discerning of the word as a sign in the symbolic system, in contrast to the joint attention without this component. Based on our results, the choice of an object as a referent of the heard label showed that children established object-label matching in all conditions. The test for the mutual exclusivity phenomenon was passed only in the familiarization condition. Thus, drawing a child’s attention to the act of naming is critical for the formation of a new unit in the symbolic system; that is, for shared knowledge acquisition.
The article describes the Russian gesture “to scrape one’s foot” presented in the literature of the period from the 19th up to the beginning of the 20th century. We regard some peculiarities of its performance; we also characterize the gesturer and the addressee, the typical contexts and standard nominations of this gesture. We pay special attention to the imperative phrase Scrape you foot! which bears strong associations with a bowing child.
Review of the book by Elena A. Grishina "Russian gestures from a linguistic perspective". Moscow, 2017. 744 p.
The present work is dedicated to the role of gestures in overcoming lexical access problems in patients with motor aphasia. The study is based on a corpus of narratives by brain-damaged individuals – «Russian CliPS» (Clinical Pear Stories), the videos from which were annotated in the linguistic annotator «ELAN», with the gestural layout included in the analysis. The results suggest that most often the difficulties with lexical access were related to the search for nouns and verbs, and gestures (deictic and rhythmic gestures, beats) facilitated lexical access in patients.
The article regards the way in which the deictic gestures with the active index finger are executed in Russian body language and focuses on the role of the tension of the index finger (slightly curved vs. extended). Using the data retrieved from the Russian Multimedia Corpus, we discover the dependency between the tension of the index finger and the tension of the arm, which is engaged in executing the deictic gestures. We also reveal correlations between the tension of the index finger and (a) the primary / secondary reference to the pointed object, (b) the closest and the farthest distance between the speaker and the pointed object. We examine the difference in meaning and usage of the deictic gestures with the slightly curved vs. extended index finger. We argue that the choice between these types of pointing may be influenced both by physical and pragmatic factors.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.