Свет и власть. Паноптикон как политическая форма и ее вариации
After Michel Foucault, Bentham’s Panopticon became a widely recognized image of the modern state. The article focuses on some aspects of this strong metaphor, not taken into account by either Foucault or most other researchers. The question of the sources of light in the Panopticon, also understood metaphorically as a sine qua non for the exercise of power and, at the same time, for its legitimacy, allows to describe such variations of the state’s political form: based on a "political religion" (adjacent to a totalitarian phenomenon), secular (adjacent to liberalism) and based on the "civil religion" (the most complicated of all). A key variable here is the mode to interface political and sacred. If in the pre-modern era the openness of political forms for influences emanating from the sacred was presumed, in modern states the political reaches autonomy; the political is become emancipated from the sacred, and, in the most radical scenarios, occupies its place. The author argues that in the future, the highest sustainability will be demonstrated by those variations of the state political form in which this autonomy is not completed, in which the connections between political and sacred are maintained, albeit at a reduced level. That is, those in which the "civil religion" is practiced.