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## Коррeляция сложности и времени решения TSP

The resource efficiency of different implementations of the branch-and-bound method for the classical traveling salesman problem depends, inter alia, on ways to organize a search decision tree generated by this method. The classic «time-memory» dilemma is realized herein either by an option of storing reduced matrices at the points of the decision tree, which leads to reduction in the complexity with additional capacity cost, or matrix recalculation for the current node, which leads to an increase in complexity while saving memory. The subject of this paper is an experimental study of temporal characteristics of solving the traveling salesman problem by the branch-and-bound method to identify a real reduction of span time using additional memory in a selected structure of a decision tree. The ultimate objective of the research is to formulate recommendations for implementing the method in practical problems encountered in logistics and business informatics. On the basis of experimental data, this paper shows that both considered options of the classic algorithm for the traveling salesman problem by the branch-and-bound method generate software implementations with an exponential dependence on the execution time of the input length. The experimental results permit us to suggest that the applicability of an additional memory capacity of no more than 1 GB results in a significant (up to five times) reduction of the time span. The estimate of the resulting trend makes it possible to recommend practical application of the software implementation of the branch-and-bound algorithm with storage of matrices - with a really available 16 GB random-access memory and with limitation of the expected average computation time of about one minute on modern personal computers whereby problems having a dimension no more than 70 can be solved exactly.

Author describes quantitative methods of optimization in management of different kinds of resources, which can be used within investment projects buildup on the stage of feasibility studies. Particulary, the issue of optimization of re-adjustment time duration is investigated (on the example of cases, when different goods are produced by one tool, but in each discrete time moment only one item can be produced by this tool). The determined model of optimization of re-adjustment time duration is proposed. Also the article contains discription of re-adjustment process optimization under uncertainty and risk.

The theory of single upper and lower tolerances for combinatorial minimization problems has been formalized in 2005 for the three types of cost functions sum, product and maximum, and since then shown to be rather useful in creating heuristics and exact algorithms for the Traveling Salesman Problem and related problems. In this paper for these three types of cost functions we extend this theory from single to set tolerances and the related reverse set tolerances. In particular, we characterize specific values of (reverse) set upper and lower tolerances as positive and infinite, and we present a criterion for the uniqueness of an optimal solution to a combinatorial minimization problem. Furthermore, we present formulas or bounds for computing (reverse) set upper and lower tolerances using the relation to their corresponding single tolerance counterparts. Finally, we give formulas for the minimum and maximum (reverse) set upper and lower tolerances using again their corresponding single tolerance counterparts.

It is shown that the logarithm of the complexity (number of nodes in the decision tree of a branch and bound algorithm) of the individual traveling salesman problem is approximately normally distributed. We use a linear regression model (logarithm of the complexity — standard normal distribution) to estimate parameters of normal distribution, which fit the sample. Borders of the interval, which contains 90% of the sample of the logarithm of the complexity, are also given.

The routing problems are important for logistic and transport sphere. Basically, the routing problems related to determining the optimal set of routes in the multigraph. The Chinese postman problem (CPP) is a special case of the routing problem, which has many potential applications. We propose to solve the MCPP (special NP-hard case of CPP, which defined on mixed multigraph) using the reduction of the original problem into General Travelling Salesman Problem (GTSP). The variants of CPP are pointed out. The mathematical formulations of some problems are presented. The algorithm for reduction the MCPP in multigraph into GTSP is shown. The experimental results of solving MCPP in multigraph through the reduction into GTSP are presented.

The routing problems are important for logistic and transport sphere. Basically, the routing problems related to determining the optimal set of routes in the multigraph. The Chinese postman problem (CPP) is a special case of the routing problem, which has many potential applications. We propose to solve the MCPP (special NP-hard case of CPP, which defined on mixed multigraph) using the reduction of the original problem into General Travelling Salesman Problem (GTSP). The variants of CPP are pointed out. The mathematical formulations of some problems are presented. The algorithm for reduction the MCPP in multigraph into GTSP is shown. The experimental results of solving MCPP in multigraph through the reduction into GTSP are presented.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability

The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.

Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.