Орнитофауна Тверских полей фильтрации
Data on avifauna of Tver filtering fields is provided. It shows a rare example of human-induced increase in local avian diversity. 124 species of birds out of 253 recorded for the region of Tver along with the number of nesting rare and endangered species make the filtering fields of Tver a convenient scientific, pro-tective and educational polygon.
The area of green zones of Tver out of the list of Specially Protected Natural Areas has significantly shrunk due to the human activities. There is a wetland patch on the southern border of the city, which is inhabited by more than 30 species of animals and plants, included in the Red Data Book of Tver Region. The protection of this area could be achieved via organizing there the Wetland Ecological and Educational Centre «Avian Eldorado»
In Russia, the end of the XIX and the beginning of the XX century were marked by active development of local history-writing. In contrast to «academic» historians, local history-writers tended to study first of all the past of their own communities, not the history of the nation as a whole. Situated on the route connecting two Russia’s capitals, St.-Petersburg and Moscow, Tver gave the local history-writers good opportunities to co-operate with the most authoritative researches of the time. On the other hand, such location made it particularly topical to demonstrate the definitive role of Tver and the Upper Volga region in Russian history. The article studies the formation and the institutional background of Tver community of local history-writers, analyses the features of Tver history-writers’ co-operation with their capital-based colleagues, and demonstrates, how the research field of local history-writing was interconnected with the development of regional identity.
The study concerns the ways to reconstruct the intellectual biography of V.I. Kolosov. The need of study of his scientific heritage is shown.
One of the key advances in genome assembly that has led to a significant improvement in contig lengths has been improved algorithms for utilization of paired reads (mate-pairs). While in most assemblers, mate-pair information is used in a post-processing step, the recently proposed Paired de Bruijn Graph (PDBG) approach incorporates the mate-pair information directly in the assembly graph structure. However, the PDBG approach faces difficulties when the variation in the insert sizes is high. To address this problem, we first transform mate-pairs into edge-pair histograms that allow one to better estimate the distance between edges in the assembly graph that represent regions linked by multiple mate-pairs. Further, we combine the ideas of mate-pair transformation and PDBGs to construct new data structures for genome assembly: pathsets and pathset graphs.
Papers about natural protection territories
Many environmental stimuli present a quasi-rhythmic structure at different timescales that the brain needs to decompose and integrate. Cortical oscillations have been proposed as instruments of sensory de-multiplexing, i.e., the parallel processing of different frequency streams in sensory signals. Yet their causal role in such a process has never been demonstrated. Here, we used a neural microcircuit model to address whether coupled theta–gamma oscillations, as observed in human auditory cortex, could underpin the multiscale sensory analysis of speech. We show that, in continuous speech, theta oscillations can flexibly track the syllabic rhythm and temporally organize the phoneme-level response of gamma neurons into a code that enables syllable identification. The tracking of slow speech fluctuations by theta oscillations, and its coupling to gamma-spiking activity both appeared as critical features for accurate speech encoding. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations can be a key instrument of speech de-multiplexing, parsing, and encoding.
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (NNRs) of the α7 subtype have been shown to contribute to the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. The site of action and the underlying mechanism, however, are unclear. Here we applied a circuit modeling approach, supported by electrochemical in vivo recordings, to clarify this issue. Modeling revealed two potential mechanisms for the drop in accumbal dopamine efflux evoked by the selective α7 partial agonist TC-7020. TC-7020 could desensitize α7 NNRs located predominantly on dopamine neurons or glutamatergic afferents to them or, alternatively, activate α7 NNRs located on the glutamatergic afferents to GABAergic interneurons in the ventral tegmental area. Only the model based on desensitization, however, was able to explain the neutralizing effect of coapplied PNU-120596, a positive allosteric modulator. According to our results, the most likely sites of action are the preterminal α7 NNRs controlling glutamate release from cortical afferents to the nucleus accumbens. These findings offer a rationale for the further investigation of α7 NNR agonists as therapy for diseases associated with enhanced mesolimbic dopaminergic tone, such as schizophrenia and addiction