Общественное вещание в Европе: симптомы кризиса
This paper considers the recent trends in the development of public service television and radio broadcasting in European countries. The authors conducted a special investigation that included an analysis of concrete facts, an analysis of television audience measurement data in European countries and a survey of experts from seven countries. The analysis of facts revealed an increasing criticism of public service broadcasting in Europe, in particular, in Great Britain, where the BBC Switch Off campaign (#bbcswitchoff) is going viral. In Switzerland, a referendum under the banner of “Let’s Say Yes” on the abolition of tax on television and radio broadcasting was held in March 2018. The analysis of television audience measurement data in 21 European countries led to the conclusion that between 2006 and 2016 there was a progressive decrease in the total share of the audience for public service television from 34.5% to 29.7%. The expert survey made it possible to reveal both positive and negative trends in the development of public service broadcasting in Europe. The positive ones included maintaining high professional standards and quality content, a high level of audience trust and the like. The negative trends were more numerous: increased pressure from government agencies, biased coverage of events, the growth of fake news, commercialization and so on. Based on the conducted research, the authors conclude that in the medium term public service television and radio broadcasting in European countries is likely to survive. But this survival will have to be paid for by a departure from the ideal model: increased dependence on the state and a continuing shift towards commercialization.