ВЛИЯНИЕ ИОНОВ КИСЛОРОДА НА СТРУКТУРУ ТОНКОГО ТОКОВОГО СЛОЯ В ХВОСТЕ ЗЕМНОЙ МАГНИТОСФЕРЫ
The authors have performed quantitative measurements to evaluate effects of solar wind speed and density on energy spectra structure of electron fluxes in the Earth’s outer radiation belt (EORB) shaped in 2007. The research has been conducted considering sufficiently isolated high speed solar wind (SW) fluxes. In 2007, 29 electron flux rises were registered in which fluxes of relativistic electrons of ~ 2 MeV were observed. The study analyzes data obtained from the LANL–GEO Satellite (electron energy range of 24.1–2000 keV) and SW parameters of the OMNI data base. Plasma density at the leading edge of SW high speed flux served as evaluation parameter of the study. For each of 29 electron flux rises, dependence of maximum differential electron fluxes characteristics was separately analyzed vs speed and density of SW. Electron fluxes have been analyzed, considering three SW density ranges (4–6, 6–12 & 13–21 cm-3) for electron flux vs SE speed relations, and three SW speed ranges (400–535, 535–602 & 602–668 km/s) for electron flux vs SW density relations. Statistical analysis served as a basis to distinguish three electron energy ranges (< 100 keV, 100–500 keV) and relativistic electrons of (> 625 keV) for which significant changes of electron fluxes dynamics have been registered with changing SW speed and density. And particularly it has been demonstrated that electron fluxes of ~ 100– 500 keV (seed particles) scarcely depend on SW speed and density variations. This energy area has a clearly defined top limit of ~ 500 keV electrons energy. Outside GEO, 100–500 keV electrons accelerate to 500 keV on average and form an outer source for GEO. According to our data, electron flux characteristics come over from being nearly independent on SW parameters to abruptly changing (> 625 keV) depending on SW speed and density only at an electron energy of ~ 500 keV. This value defines the actual lower limit of local resonant seed electron acceleration produced by ultralow frequency waves (ULF waves) at L ~ 5 (L is McIlwain L-parameter; e.g., magnetic shell L = 6 is 6R3 away from the Earth’s center in the plane of geomagnetic equator, where R3 is the Earth’s radius) to relativistic energies. Results of our study based on the EORB electron fluxes dynamics vs SW speed and density analysis have been proved in many other studies of phase density dynamics in the EORB electron fluxes. Analysis of electron energy spectra provided quantitative estimation of SW speed and density effects on formation of relativistic electron fluxes in the EORB. The analysis provided the following results: 1) reduction of electron flux with increasing of SW plasma density at a constant SW speed; 2) increasing of density effect with increasing of SW speed, the effect can be registered at a speed of ≤ 650 km/s; 3) at geostationary orbit, at SW speed of > 660 km/s and SW plasma density of СВ > 8 cm3, high energy electron fluxes are virtually independent on SW density. The obtained results demonstrate complex balance between acceleration processes and losses resulting from interaction of electrons with ultralow frequency (ULF) and ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. Increasing of SW plasma density causes significant power rise of EMIC-waves, which basically define speed of electron pitch-angle diffusion into the loss cone, being the maximum for relativistic electrons.
The paper shows the relation of the dynamics of the geomagnetic activity Kp-index with annual distributions of high-speed solar wind fluxes and coronal mass ejection. It is shown that near the maxima of solar activity, the average annual number of coronal mass ejection ~ 8 times (the average value for 20 - 23 cycles) exceeds the number of high-speed fluxes, during these periods the average annual values of the Kp-index are formed by coronal mass ejection. It is shown that during the decay phase of solar activity, the average annual number of high-speed fluxes is ~ 6 times (the average value for 20 - 23 cycles) exceeds the number of coronal mass ejection, during these periods the average annual values of Kp-index are formed by solar wind high-speed fluxes. To pick out seasonal variations in the work, an analysis of the intra-annual distributions of the Kp-index diurnal values is carried out. The annual distribution of the number of cases (years) according to the type of seasonal variations (strong variations, minor and irregular changes) is very uneven and varies from cycle to cycle, depends little on the phase of the solar cycle and does not depend on the direction of the Sun magnetic field. During 7 solar cycles (83 years), strong seasonal variations are observed in 34 cases (41% of the total), no variations for 15 cases (18%). The average values of the Kp-index variations for each phase of the solar cycle are obtained. The relation seasonal variations in outer radiation belt relativistic electron fluxes and the duration of the outer radiation belt energetic electron precipitation in the ionosphere with seasonal variations of the Kp-index is shown.
In the time period (from 01.01.2007 till 31.12.2007), relating to the end phase of the 24th solar activity cycle decline (the minimum solar activity was observed in 2009), satellites orbiting outside the Earth’s magnetosphere provided information that variations have been registered of solar wind plasma speed, as well as of density, temperature and intensity of interplanetary magnetic field, and of galactic cosmic rays particle fluxes intensity. In the Earth’s outer radiation belt, the geostationary satellites registered intensity variations of electron fluxes with the electrons energy of several tens of keV to several MeV. The ground stations observed variations of geomagnetic activity indexes. The authors have showed that the maximum variation intensity of interplanetary medium parameters, geomagnetic activity indexes and ionizing radiation fluxes in the Earth’s outer radiation belt was observed at the speed of Sun rotation. The authors also have demonstrated that close to the Sun activity minimum, the intensity of particle flux (with the particles energy of 30 to 100 MeV) of galactic cosmic rays within the high speed recurrent stream of solar plasma was lower than in the surrounding space environment. The turbulence spectrum intensity of the interplanetary magnetic field within the high speed recurrent plasma stream has been demonstrated to be 10 times more than in the surrounding space environment.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
The Handbook of CO₂ in Power Systems' objective is to include the state-of-the-art developments that occurred in power systems taking CO₂ emission into account. The book includes power systems operation modeling with CO₂ emissions considerations, CO₂ market mechanism modeling, CO₂ regulation policy modeling, carbon price forecasting, and carbon capture modeling. For each of the subjects, at least one article authored by a world specialist on the specific domain is included.