Тургенев и Токвиль об экономической роли несвободы и подневольного труда
The initial paragraph of Turgenev’s Khor and Kalynych (the opening story of A Sportsman’s Sketches) contrasts society and economy of two neighbouring regions. The key difference between two ways of life appears to depend on the use of forced labour in one region and its absence in another. Although the description is certainly based on Turgenev’s first-hand knowledge, it can be argued that the literary device behind it was inspired by a passage in the De la démocratie en Amérique» by Alexis de Tocqueville, who also contrasts two ways of life of two neighbouring regions and makes forced labour vs free labour responsible for the difference. It is likely that Tocqueville in turn made use of a literary device he had found in the Travels in France by Arthur Young: both Young and Tocqueville present two economically different worlds separated just by a river. While Tocqueville, a researcher, demonstrates the destructive influence of the slavery on the slave-owners and their society, Turgenev, a short story writer, shows the destructive influence of landowners on the lives of their serfs.