The sandwich of Russian space: how different spaces differentiate themes in regional science
The article shows the inseparable connection between the topics of the main centers of Russian regional science and the properties of the space that they are studying. The diversity of the thematic structure of research centers is derived from differences in economic geographical and geopolitical position, sectoral structure of the economy, age of economic development of the studied areas of the Russian space. However, the most important factor differentiating the Russian space is the density of economic activity, which determines the level of development of the territory. Within the Russian space, significant undeveloped territories of the North, the Arctic, Siberia, and the Far East are of particular interest, in which extensive buffer zones are distinguished between the main settlement zone and low‐density periphery. They constitute the essential specificity of the Russian space. Another feature is the presence of colossal “ownerless” spaces that are outside the influence of any nearby major center and therefore are forced to focus on the federal capital, Moscow.
The current lack of a unified indicators system to evaluate the innovation activity at the rigional level makes it nessesary to develop methodology for assessing the innovative capacity of the region. It should include appoaches related to the formal and substantive analysis to identify the factors that influence the innovative capacity of the region, as well as expert evaluation to rank the factors identified.
In article the system of indicators of an estimation of use of social and economic potential of region, approaches to its forecasting and maintenance of unity of received estimations are considered.
Urban Studies currently apply the concept of creativity to the whole cities but not to the particular sites or practices within. We apply the micro-perspective to discover how the creative practices and actions such as flash mobs, performances, etc. change urban conventions and urban scenarios. Facilitating the physical contacts and communication among urban citizens, these events empower urbanites with communicative skills, decrease the alienation through bodily contacts and emotional reactions. Involving passersby into spontaneous improvisations, these open-ended actions turn them into creators of new urban practices, scenarios, and meanings. So, these actions may be considered as the mechanisms for producing and training social skills. Thus creativity becomes a general urban skill and not the attribute of some particular groups or classes. These ephemeral urban events are prolonged through their medialization (photo, video, internet, etc.). Being medialized, they keep affecting the viewers fostering emotional reactions and becoming the part of urban imagionary.
Labor productivity is the most important factor in the economic growth of the region. Traditional production functions assess the contribution of labor resources to three-fourths of the total one. But today there are new factors, the inclusion of which in the model is necessary, since they determine the key forces of economic development, identify the direction of regional policy.
Economic growth, according to neoclassical theory and the theory of endogenous growth, is influenced by labor resources: population density, quality of labor, the level of employment, investment in human capital, labor productivity. The role of human capital in the models of endogenous growth is considered at two angles: through the ability to generate knowledge and innovative development and as an independent factor - the accumulation of human capital in the region is the basis of economic growth.
The article analyzes classical and modern approaches to assessing the impact of labor resources on economic growth, shows the role played by production functions in such approaches. The characteristic of the main trends of the economic growth of the Russian regions is given, the analysis of development of labor resources and efficiency of their use is made. Production functions such as the Cobb-Douglas type are constructed for the Russian regions, showing the contribution of labor and capital to economic growth, and the statistical significance of these factors is determined. The study was conducted for 83 regions of Russia for the period from 1995 to 2015.
The study will identify the main trends of the impact of the labor force to economic growth, to form the main conclusions for economic policy in the regions of Russia.
Urban public space continues to be the focus of debate regarding its conceptualization and how it is designed, (re)produced and managed. Nowadays public spaces are facing new challenges conceptually and practically. This book focuses on two of them: mobility and aestheticization. Mobility and flows are considered to be key characteristics of the post-modern era. While for some scholars it means the «end of place», others are trying to re-conceptualize it by bringing together notions of space, place, mobility and identity. Still surprisingly few authors address the concept of public space in this respect. Principles of aesthetic and diverse forms of aestheticization seem to have affected urban space and culture throughout Modernity, forming a dimension where power and conflict around urban space are performed. In this book nine authors with social science and arts backgrounds from six countries discuss how these processes shape the life of modern cities, and where the social sciences should move for a better understanding of them.
The volume presents papers delivered o the topic of Urban Dimensions of American Civilization.It reflects major themes and methodological approaches-interdisciplinary, comparative, imagological-applied to the national and transnational views of the ethnicity, race and gender identity, and to the multicultural society of the USA as projected in its literary, polemical, art, historical, social and political essays.
The general region socio-economical developement estimation approach is based on the agregation of diffeerent indices into one number. This approach leads to the loss of information, because highly economically developed regions are mixed with the poorly developed regions which live only due to subsidies. The new complex-valued index is proposed in the article. The usage of the index allows to evaluate the regions' developement from two separated sides: the social developement and economical developement. The simple way of such a complex-valued indices is proposed in the article.
The world has entered the urban millennium. Nearly half the world’s people are now city dwellers, and the rapid increase in urban population is expected to continue, mainly in developing countries. This historic transition is being further propelled by the powerful forces of globalization. The central challenge for the international community is clear: to make both urbanization and globalization work for all people, instead of leaving billions behind or on the margins. Although globalization certainly affects rural areas, the impact of global economic change is largely centred on cities. Globalization is changing the structure of employment; it is altering the demographic make-up of cities; and it is introducing a strong international context to local concerns. At the same time, cities and their surrounding regions are themselves shaping and promoting globalization by providing the infrastructure and labour upon which globalization depends, as well as the ideas and innovation that have always emerged from the intensity of urban life. The benefits of globalization are being spread unevenly. Cities present some of the starkest of these contrasts: homeless people living in cardboard boxes, next to skyscrapers occupied by corporations whose budgets exceed those of many countries; growing gaps between the salaries offered by labour markets and the housing costs determined by urban land markets; enormous levels of consumption alongside great pyramids of waste that threaten the environment and human health; and hitherto unseen patterns of segregation, with pockets of wealth at the centre and vast enclaves of poverty on the periphery. The combined processes of urbanization and globalization have thrust additional responsibilities on city governments. Public administration and economic development are linked more and more to global markets and investment, but this is also an opportunity: to entrench democracy at the local level and to build new partnerships with the private sector, citizens’ groups and other cities confronting similar challenges. National governments, for their part, will continue to play a key role in the governance of cities, not only in terms of finance, but also in overall strategic planning and in crucial matters such as justice, equity and social cohesion. Cities in a Globalizing World: Global Report on Human Settlements 2001 is a comprehensive review of conditions in the world’s cities and the prospects for making them better, safer places to live in an age of globalization. I hope that it will provide all stakeholders – foremost among them the urban poor themselves – with reliable and timely information with which to set our policies right and get the machinery of urban life moving in a constructive direction. At the United Nations Millennium Summit in September 2000, world leaders pledged to achieve, by the year 2020, significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers. As we strive to meet this target and to implement the Habitat Agenda adopted at the Istanbul conference in 1996, the United Nations system, including the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat), will continue to place its unique services at the disposal of all the world’s peoples.
The article is based on the results of a quantitative survey of school graduates from small and midsize towns of Russia and on the materials of expert interviews (conducted in 2015 and 2018). It is concluded that over 90% of modern 11th-grade students of midsize and small towns are going to get a higher education. However, the majority of school graduates associate the implementation of these plans and their further career development with migration from hometowns. Migration intentions are higher among school students from small towns. Educational and migration strategies of young people correlate with their academic performance, parental education level and material prosperity of their families. The leading migration’s directions are the large cities, including their own regional centers. The choice of their own regional centers (or rejection of them in favor of other large cities) is influenced by the location and territorial proximity of the hometown, availability of wide range of universities and further employment opportunities in the regional center. The most successful school graduates move to Moscow and St. Petersburg, and there is almost no chance of their return to hometowns.
The article examines the current transformation of ASEAN−UK foreign economic cooperation pattern in the context of digitalization of the global economy. Brexit as a manifestation of the European integration crisis has catalyzed diversification of Britain’s foreign trade in services. Southeast Asian nations are becoming the UK’s priority partner in this area. In these circumstances, parties have to choose the model of their future trade agreement and the degree of trade liberalization.
Within a brief historical period, BRICS as an inter-State association has become an influential player in the world economy and politics. BRICS is a primarily political entity, and in that regard, the BRICS grouping correlates with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). However, not all the expectations placed on the SCO by the founding countries at the time of its creation in 2001 have been met so far. The question is to what extent expectations may be fulfilled in case of BRICS.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.