Observations of X-rays from laboratory sparks in air at atmospheric pressure under negative switching impulse voltages
We present observations of X-rays from laboratory sparks created in the air at atmospheric pressure by applying an impulse voltage with long (250 mu s) rise-time. X-ray production in 35 and 46 cm gaps for three different electrode configurations was studied. The results demonstrate, for the first time, the production of X-rays in gaps subjected to switching impulses. The low rate of rise of the voltage in switching impulses does not significantly reduce the production of X-rays. Additionally, the timing of the X-ray occurrence suggests the possibility that the mechanism of X-ray production by sparks is related to the collision of streamers of opposite polarity.
We demonstrate the possibility of determining a large group of physical properties of DLC films using only one group of methods based on X-ray interference studies. These include methods for determination of the film thickness, material density and roughness of the surface. We present the analysis of possibilities to use the method of the two-crystal X-ray spectrometer to evaluate internal stress and to deduce the modules of elasticity and thermal expansion coefficients of the film. It is shown that this method can be used for the in-situ control jf the film parameters during the film deposition in the technological chamber.
We show that there is a new class of gas tails—slingshot tails—that form as a subhalo (i.e., a subcluster or early-type cluster galaxy) moves away from the cluster center toward the apocenter of its orbit. These tails can point perpendicular or even opposite to the subhalo direction of motion, not tracing the recent orbital path. Thus, the observed tail direction can be misleading, and we caution against naive conclusions regarding the subhalo's direction of motion based on the tail direction. A head-tail morphology of a galaxy's or subcluster's gaseous atmosphere is usually attributed to ram pressure stripping, and the widely applied conclusion is that gas stripped tail traces the most recent orbit. However, during the slingshot tail stage, the subhalo is not being ram pressure stripped (RPS) and the tail is shaped by tidal forces more than just the ram pressure. Thus, applying a classic RPS scenario to a slingshot tail leads not only to an incorrect conclusion regarding the direction of motion but also to incorrect conclusions regarding the subhalo velocity, expected locations of shear flows, instabilities, and mixing. We describe the genesis and morphology of slingshot tails using data from binary cluster merger simulations and discuss their observable features and how to distinguish them from classic RPS tails. We identify three examples from the literature that are not RPS tails but slingshot tails and discuss other potential candidates.
Recent NuSTAR and XMM–Newton observations of the molecular cloud around the Arches stellar cluster demonstrate a dramatic change both in morphology and intensity of its nonthermal X-ray emission, similar to that observed in many molecular clouds of the Central Molecular Zone at the Galactic Center. These variations trace the propagation of illuminating fronts, presumably induced by past flaring activities of SgrA. In this paper, we present results of a long NuSTAR observation of the Arches complex in 2016, taken a year after the previous XMM+NuSTAR observations which revealed a strong decline in the cloud emission. The 2016 NuSTAR observation shows that both the non-thermal continuum emission and the Fe Kα 6.4 keV line flux are consistent with the level measured in 2015. No significant variation has been detected in both spectral shape and Fe Kα equivalent width EW6.4 keV, which may be interpreted as the intensity of the Arches non-thermal emission reaching its stationary level. At the same time, the measured 2016 non-thermal flux is not formally in disagreement with the declining trend observed in 2007–2015. Thus, we cannot assess whether the non-thermal emission has reached a stationary level in 2016, and new observations, separated by a longer time period, are needed to draw stringent conclusions. Detailed spectral analysis of three bright clumps of the Arches molecular cloud performed for the first time showed different EW6.4 keV and absorption. This is a strong hint that the X-ray emission from the molecular cloud is a mix of two components with different origins.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.