Chemical Transformations of Biomass-Derived C6-Furanic Platform Chemicals for Sustainable Energy Research, Materials Science, and Synthetic Building Blocks
Recent advances in the area of biomass-derived C6-furanic platform chemicals for sustainable biomass
processing are analyzed focusing on chemical reactions important for development of practical applications and
materials science. Among the chemical processes currently being studied, tuning the amount of oxygen-containing
functional groups remains the most active research direction. Production of efficient fuels requires the removal of oxygen atoms (reduction reactions), whereas utilization of biomassderived furanic derivatives in material science points out the importance of oxidation in order to form dicarboxylic derivatives. Stimulated by this driving force, oxidation and reduction of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) are nowadays massively studied. Moreover, these fundamental transformations are often used as model reactions to test new catalysts, and HMF transformations guide the development of new catalytic systems. From the viewpoint of organic synthesis, highly diverse chemical reactivity is explored and a number of bioderived synthetic building blocks with different functional groups are now accessible. This Perspective covers the most recent literature (since Jan 2017) to highlight the emerging research trends.
Oxidative esterification of biomass-derived 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural (HMF) and furfural and their derivatives has been performed using a simple MnO2/NaCN system. The developed method allows the selective one-pot transformation of HMF to dimethyl furan-2,5-dicarboxylate (FDME) in 83% isolated yield without the formation of a free acid. Simplification of FDME production provides the missing link for manufacturing sustainable value-added materials from biomass. Addition of water to the oxidative system allows finetuning of reaction selectivity to obtain the previously difficult-to-access pure methyl 5-(hydroxylmethyl) furan-2-carboxylate in one step directly from the unprotected HMF without chromatographic separation.
2-Azidomethyl-5-ethynylfuran, a new ambivalent compound with both azide and alkyne moieties that can be used as a self-clickable monomer, is synthesized starting directly from renewable biomass. The reactivity of the azide group linked to furfural is tested via the efficient preparation of a broad range of furfural-containing triazoles in good to excellent yields using a ‘green’ copper(I)-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition procedure. Access to new bio-based chemicals and oligomeric materials via a click-chemistry approach is also demonstrated using this bio-derived building block.
We have performed a comparative analysis of the bio-oil produced by thermal liquefaction of microalgae in different solvents using high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry and GC-MS approach. Water, methanol, ethanol, butanol, isopropanol, acetonitrile, toluene, and hexane were used as solvents in which the liquefaction was performed. It was observed that all resulting oils demonstrate a considerable degree of similarity. For all samples, compounds containing 1 and 2 nitrogen atoms dominated in the positive ESI spectra, while a relative contribution of other compounds was small. In negative ESI mode, compounds having 2 to 7 oxygens were observed. Statistical analysis revealed that products can be combined in two groups depending on the solvent used for the liquefaction. To the first group, we can attribute the products obtained by using protic (alcohols) and to the second by using aprotic (acetonitrile, toluene) solvents. Nevertheless, based on our results, we concluded that solvent possesses a minor impact on molecular composition of bio-oil. We suggested that the driving force of the liquefaction reaction is the thermal dehydration of the carbohydrate in algae, resulting in water formation, which could be the trigger of the producing of bio-oil. To prove this hypothesis, we performed the reaction with the dry algae in the absence of the solvent and observed the formation of bio-oil.
This volume, being the 55th of this Series, contains a wealth of information on bioactive natural products. In Chapter 1, Watson and colleagues have discussed the synthesis of monoterpene indole alkaloids, an important class of structurally diverse natural products, with respect to conventional and biomimetic synthetic approaches.
Titanocene(III) has been widely used in the synthesis of complex organic molecules and natural products including polyketides, phenylpropanoids, antibiotics, and alkaloids. Oltra and coworkers have provided a review on the stereoselective synthesis of natural products facilitated by titanocene(III) in Chapter 2.
About 70 biologically active macrocyclic bisbibenzyls (MBBs) have been isolated and structurally elucidated during the last 30 years. Song and Zhao, in Chapter 3, have provided a review on the synthesis of MBBs with diverse pharmacological properties.
Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine/metabolic disorder that poses a global health concern. Reyes and colleagues have discussed the hypoglycemic activity of some terrestrial and marine bioactive compounds with potential for treating type 2 diabetes in Chapter 4. In Chapter 5, Pietruszka and coworkers have highlighted the importance of some marine oxylipins that exhibit different bioactive properties.
Depression has become a psychiatric disorder, which leads to various disabilities. Natural compounds like polyphenols and terpenoids have antioxidant and neuroprotective properties and can be used for the treatment of depression. In Chapter 6, Rodrigues et al. review the clinical studies and trials on polyphenols and terpenoids for the treatment of various psychiatric disorders. The lipid A phosphate and their phosphorylated analogues found in Gram-negative bacteria are of major importance because they provide the host with defense against infections from various microorganisms. Paradies and Zimmermann have discussed physical characteristics, isolation, and bioactivity of lipopolysaccharides (lipid A) for developing new vaccines and therapeutics in Chapter 7.
Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) are a group of phytonutrients with numerous beneficial effects on human health that are largely derived from plants. HCAs play important roles like defense against UV rays or pathogenic attack during growth and development of plants. In Chapter 8, El-Seedi and colleagues present a review focusing on the therapeutic effects of HCAs for the treatment of cancer, diabetes, pulmonary, hepatic, neuro-, and cardiovascular diseases. In Chapter 9, Pomilio and Mercader have presented the study of natural anthocyanins and other related flavonoids for the readers, highlighting their possible and preferable uses as health-protecting food dyes over synthetic ones. They have also discussed the anthocyanins isolated from Ipomoea cairica along with their QSAR studies.
Cardiovascular diseases are considered to be a major threat to health. Polyphenols and carotenoids are structurally diverse groups of bioactive compounds isolated from fruits and vegetables, carrying protective effects against endothelial dysfunction. These therapeutic effects have been explored by Yamagata in Chapter 10.
The roots of licorice and ivy leaves have been used in folk medicine and drugs since long. The biological activity of these complexes has been discussed by Yakovishin and Grishkovets in Chapter 11. In Chapter 12, the chemical and biological characteristics of amicoumacins and xenocoumacins are reviewed by Korshun et al. with reference to the preparation of antibiotics.
I hope that this volume will be received with the same enthusiasm as the earlier volumes of this long-standing series the first volume of which was published under my Editorship in 1988. I would like to express my gratitude to Ms. Taqdees Malik and Mr. Mahmood Alam for their assistance in the preparation of this volume.
The New Russian Encyclopedia is a fundamental reference publication in 18 volumes that characterizes nature, population, economy, history, science, art, technology and other important aspects. Contains about 60,000 articles, about 30,000 biographies, about 15,000 color illustrations, maps, charts, diagrams, tables. Leaves since 2003.
The hydrogenation of diphenylacetylene (DPA) on palladium–silver catalysts with a single-atom structure was investigated. It has been shown experimentally that the reaction rate of alkene to alkane hydrogenation is substantially lower than the rate of DPA semi-hydrogenation. The kinetic barriers of all stages of hydrogenation were calculated by the DFT method.
Abstract—Hybrid bromobismuthates of N-alkylated derivatives of 2- and 3-methylpyridine, (C15H20N2)2Bi2Br10 (I), (C17H24N2)2Bi2Br10 (II), (C18H26N2)3(Bi2Br9)2 (III), (C14H18N2)(H3O)BiBr6 ∙ 2H2O (IV), (C14H18N2)2BiBr6IBr2 (V), (C16H22N2)3(Bi2Br9)2 (VI), and (C18H26N2)3(Bi2Br9)2 (VII), are synthesized in concentrated HBr and characterized by physicochemical methods. The structures of complexes I–VII are studied by X-ray structure analysis (CIF files CCDC nos. 1946844–1946850). Complexes I and II contain anions [Bi2Br10] 4–. Anions [Bi2Br9] 3– are found in the structures of compounds III, VI, and VII Bis(3-methyl-1-pyridino)ethane bromobismuthate IV contains cations H3O+ and anions [BiBr6] 3– and, unlike other bromobismuthates, decomposes at low temperatures. In presence of HI vapors, double bismuthate V containing the [BiBr6] 3– and IBr2 2– anions crystallizes along with compound IV.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.