A Model of Random Sales
It is shown by using a model that even a minor change in prices made by the seller is sufficient to coordinate the actions of independent purchasers so that they act as a single economic agent pursuing the aim of maximizing the effective utility function.
This paper contains the research of neuroeconomics results such as formulation and analysis of Ultimatum game (see Alan G. Sanfey, 2003) and neuromarketing (see Patrick Renvoisé, 2005). As a result the rational behavior of consumer during the decision-making of consume object prejudiced. In particular the axiom of reflexiveness of the rational utility theory was disproved. That axiom maintains that the fixed set of goods is not worse that itself. A conclusion that consumer choice based on the utility criterion depends not only on the set of goods but on the consume environment was made. The hypothesis of irrational behavior allowed to formalize floating utility criterion and correlation between the basket of products utility and consume environment during the consumer decision-making. Based on floating utility criterion the problem of optimal consumer’s budget distribution in conditions of integral utility maximization on limited time interval and consideration of the predicted environment factors value posed. Then the problem of intertemporal consumer choise for floating criterion was posed. The solution analysis of that problems had allowed to draw a conclusion of a significant influence of the predicted environment factors value exactness on an optimal solution and a dependence of that exactness on a consumer satisfaction.
Russia contributes to this transformation and pursues policies aimed at enhancing her foreign trade and economic security now and also to facilitate the development of a system where foreign nations will have no significant influence over the international currency system and world credit markets thus making economic dimensions of Russian overall power less vulnerable to manipulations from abroad.
Principles of constructing balanced system of logistic efficiency are viewed. (BSC) Basic advantages, which allow to implement management on the base of logistic BSC are shown. Methodology of calculating logistic KPI in trade company on the example of warehousing business-process, in particular consignment, completion and dispatch at distributing center of retail network is adduced.
It is shown, that key indices of activity of other subdivisions of logistic department: operational department, transport-forwarding department, control-auditorial group should also be included into logistic BSC in trade company. Designed system of indices is connected with system of motivating personnel, whilst individual rewarding for positive results is tied to completion of established standards of KPI. Examples of calculating influence of logistics on return on capital basing on model of strategic profit.
The article addresses the G20 compliance with its long-standing commitment to refrain from protectionist measures. The paper attempts to measure and compare the results of individual G20 members in different timeframes between the summits. The analysis is based on the data from the WTO reports on G20 trade and trade-related measures. The author believes that the effectiveness of G20 in this field of cooperation remains low, which is substantiated by a large number of protectionist measures adopted by the G20 members in the period between Washington summit in 2008 and Cannes summit in 2011. The publication is prepared within the framework of a joint project "Enhancing Effectiveness of Russia's Participation in G8, G20 and BRICS in Compliance with the Russian Federation National Priorities in Global Governance and Developing Recommendations for the Russian Presidency of G20 in 2013" implementing by Russian International Affairs Council (RIAC) and International Organisations Research Institute (IORI) of the National Research University Higher School of Economics in 2012.
The historical changes in Central and Eastern Europe demanded suitable paths for the transition from centrally planned to market based economies. The lack of relevant experience added to the challenge, giving rise to the incalculable risks of implementing untested policies. By focusing on monetary policy, trade, and convergence, this volume addresses some of the most urgent economic policy issues in the transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
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