The role of native-language phonology in the auditory word identification and visual word recognition of Russian-English bilinguals
Does native language phonology influence visual word processing in a second language? This question was investigated in two experiments with two groups of Russian-English bilinguals, differing in their English experience, and a monolingual English control group. Experiment 1 tested visual word recognition following semantic categorization of words containing four phonological vowel contrasts (/i/−/u/,/I/−/∧/,/i/−/I/,/ε/−/\ae//i/−/u/,/I/−/∧/,/i/−/I/,/ε/−/\ae/). Experiment 2 assessed auditory identification accuracy of words containing these four contrasts. Both bilingual groups demonstrated reduced accuracy in auditory identification of two English vowel contrasts absent in their native phonology (/i/−/I/,/ε/−/\ae//i/−/I/,/ε/−/\ae/). For late- bilinguals, auditory identification difficulty was accompanied by poor visual word recognition for one difficult contrast (/i/-/I/). Bilinguals’ visual word recognition moderately correlated with their auditory identification of difficult contrasts. These results indicate that native language phonology can play a role in visual processing of second language words. However, this effect may be considerably constrained by orthographic systems of specific languages.
This book is an investigation into the grammar of Mehweb (Dargwa, East Caucasian also known as Nakh-Daghestanian) based on several years of team fieldwork. Mehweb is spoken in one village community in Daghestan, Russia, with a population of some 800 people, In many ways, Mehweb is a typical East Caucasian language: it has a rich inventory of consonants; an extensive system of spatial forms in nouns and converbs and volitional forms in verbs; pervasive gender-number agreement; and ergative alignment in case marking and in gender agreement. It is also a typical language of the Dargwa branch, with symmetrical verb inflection in the imperfective and perfective paradigm and extensive use of spatial encoding for experiencers. Although Mehweb is clearly close to the northern varieties of Dargwa, it has been long isolated from the main body of Dargwa varieties by speakers of Avar and Lak. As a result of both independent internal evolution and contact with its neighbours, Mehweb developed some deviant properties, including accusatively aligned egophoric agreement, a split in the feminine class, and the typologically rare grammatical categories of verificative and apprehensive. But most importantly, Mehweb is where our friends live.
especially impaired on regular past-tense forms like played, whether the task requires production, comprehension or even the judgement that "play" and "played" sound different. Within a dual-mechanism account of inflectional morphology, these deficits reflect disruption to the rule-based process that adds (or strips) the suffix -ed to regular verb stems; but the fact that the patients are also impaired at detecting the difference between word pairs like "tray" and "trade" (the latter being a phonological but not a morphological twin to "played") suggests an important role for phonological characteristics of the regular past tense. The present study examined MEG brain responses in healthy participants evoked by spoken regular past-tense forms and phonological twin words (plus twin pseudowords and a non-speech control) presented in a passive oddball paradigm. Deviant forms (played, trade, kwade/kwayed) relative to their standards (play, tray, kway) elicited a pronounced neuromagnetic response at approximately 130 ms after the onset of the affix; this response was maximal at sensors over temporal areas of both hemispheres but stronger on the left, especially for played and kwayed. Relative to the same standards, a different set of deviants ending in /t/--plate, trait and kwate--produced stronger difference responses especially over the right hemisphere. Results are discussed with regard to dual- and single-mechanism theories of past tense processing and the need to consider neurobiological evidence in attempts to understand inflectional morphology.
Our congress themes for ICPhS 2019 are “Endangered Languages” and “Major Language Varieties”. Melbourne is the fastest growing city in Australia, with migrants from all over the world; and although English is the most widely-spoken language, there is a very large variety of community languages spoken here as well. We are also very proud in Australia of our Aboriginal heritage; and although indigenous communities in Australia suffered greatly as a result of British settlement – leading to tremendous language loss in certain regions – some strong language communities and cultures remain despite invasion. I am also pleased to note that ICPhS 2019 is being supported by our “Kiwi cousins” in New Zealand, who like us speak a “New World” variety of the English language brought to us by the British settlers, as well as te reo Māori, the indigenous language of New Zealand.
We present a database of uvular consonant subsystems of indigenous languages of the Caucasus from all branches (Northwest Caucasian, East Caucasian and Kartvelian). Data for the database were collected from existing language descriptions and field work. All in all, 39 languages were analyzed. This database allows us to systematically compare the inventories of uvular consonants in the Caucasian languages and create a predictive model for the co-occurrence of particular uvular consonants.
A detailed analysis of the information reported on dialects of the Karachai-Balkar language by various specialists does not permit to hear their reasons against the including of Karachai-Balkar in the West Kypchak group.
The paper deals with the question of the correlation between 1) tonal independence and phonological weight of a morpheme and 2) the grammaticality of its meaning in the Kakabe language. In Kakabe morphemes with grammatical meaning, such as auxiliaries, different verbal and noun affixes etc. tend to contain only one light syllable and to possess no lexical tone of their own. The case of the post-subject auxiliary markers, which is in the focus of the paper, is especially revealing of the correlation between phonology and grammatical function of a morpheme. Syntactically, these markers occupy an intermediate position between the defendant affixes and more free lexical morphemes. This is mirrored at the phonological level in the fact that the paradigm of auxiliaries comprises both tonally dependent markers consisting of only one light syllable and markers which have their own tone and consist of more than one syllable.
In this paper, I describe the phonetic inventory of Mehweb, consonants and vowels, as well as the main productive alternations. Two separate sections treat the rules of syllable placement and gives a preliminary treatment of pharyngealization. In Mehweb, pharyngealization is a feature which extends the basic vowel inventory [i, e, a, u] to include [oˁ] (the pharyngealized variant of [u], along with pharyngealized [iˁ, eˁ, aˁ]) and the inventory of radical consonants by the process of epiglottalization (where [ʡ] is a pharyngealized variant of [ʔ] and [ʜ] is a pharyngealized variant of [ħ]).
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.