Значение «символов» Вечери Господней в конфликте пастора Ральфа Уолдо Эмерсона с приходом
The paper investigates the controversy over the Lord’s Supper between Ralph Waldo Emerson and the Second Church of Boston. We studied the text of Emerson’s sermon against the Lord’s Supper ascertaining possible theological divisions among the church members on the issues of Christ’s true nature and authority, as well as the meaning of bread and wine of the Communion. We reveal how the pastor foreshadowed the assumed reactions of his listeners while working on the text of his sermon. Searching for adequate contexts for our interpretations we have demonstrated how “The Essay on the Lord’s Supper” by the Rev. F.W.P. Greenwood is related to Emerson’s stand against the rite.
Article is dealing with how the confessional peculiarities of Protestantism were perceived and qualified by starets Artemiy, a Churchman of Muscovy, who fled from persecutions to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, in the middle of the XVIth century. Analysis of Artemiy’s epistles has resulted in the conclusion that the Protestant doctrine was understood one-sidedly and with great distortions because of the substantial divergences in very confessional languages of Eastern and Western Christian tradition in the XVIth century.
“Lectures on Justification” were read by John Henry Newman, one of the leaders of the Tractarian movement, in 1837 in Oxford, and then published in 1838. This series of lectures exemplifies Newman’s doctrine of the “via media” of the Anglican Church. According to this doctrine, Anglican Church is supposed to pass between the extremes of papism and popular Protestantism. The tenth lecture examines the relationship between faith and justification. The author criticizes the popular Protestant doctrine of justification by faith only that neglects the office of sacraments in salvation. He suggests the interpretation of faith as one of the instruments of justification, which justifies only after and not before the baptism.
This article deals with the recently revealed paradox that contemporary Muslims score higher on Protestant work ethic than contemporary Protestants. The author tests whether this phenomenon is supported by World Values Survey (WVS) data. According to Inglehart’s theory of post-materialist shift, work ethic should be stronger in the developing societies where there is a lack of existential security. The author also tests whether the effects of the Protestant work ethic extend beyond the religious population of Protestant countries. The multilevel models built on 25,437 respondents in 55 countries show no significant difference in work ethic between Muslims and Protestants. Living in a historically Protestant society does not increase work ethic, but being religious in a Protestant society does. As countries develop, work ethic is likely to decrease. This poses further questions about the universal features of religious ethics and the non-religious factors explaining the economic progress associated with the Protestant work ethic.
Article is devoted to Protestantism as constantly changing set of faiths. The exception is made by communities which behavior of members has pronounced asocial character. One of recently created doctrines of such nature is the community of followers of TCCI.