Patents for evidence-based decision-making and smart specialisation
The article compares and contrasts different sets of patent-based indicators, traditionally used to assess countries’ technological capacities and specialisation. By doing that, we seek to determine how a chosen metric might affect the results of such an analysis, sometimes causing misleading conclusions on technological profiling. This goal is achieved with the statistical analysis of patent activity of the top-10 patenting economies. Findings indicate the need for policymakers to employ a complex of patent-related indicators when formulating technological specialisation strategies. Results also offer a taxonomy of technological capacities of the leading countries, which can further help understanding their current status and prospects for future progress. Thus, the paper might be of interest for researchers and analysts, which seek to offer methodological approaches and models to assess technological development of economies, as well as for policymakers governing the process.
This monograph focuses on the nature of factors and mechanisms of the innovation processes in the Regional innovation systems with catch-up type of economy. The monograph shows that the further development of cooperation of innovation entities and the development of technological entrepreneurship in the regions of Russia is impossible without a planned and systematic processes of regionalization of the innovation business ecosystem.
The monograph substantiates that the state-owned private Regional Center for Incubation and Acceleration and the multifunctional state Single Regional Investment Fund should become the basis for the development of the ecosystem of innovative entrepreneurship in the region of the country.
The monograph is intended for researchers, graduate students, students specializing in the field of innovation management, as well as managers and decision makers who are responsible for the development of regional innovation systems.
The article analyzes problems of planning research and technological development. We consider two lines of theoretical concepts of planning, i.e., economic and mathematical versus empirical and evolu tionary. Problems of the statistical basis for constructing economic and mathematical models of scientific and technological development are studied in detail. The example of Russia is used to show that the weakness of the theoretical framework of planning leads to inconsistencies in government priorities of scientific and tech nological development.
The topic of organizational change became quite popular in recent publications of researchers and practitioners all over the world. This interest can be explained by growing market turbulence and highly dynamic development of technologies that dramatically change landscapes of particular industries. Companies that fail to change in accordance with those new trends, or cannot foresee those trends and change before they become real, are condemned to quick death. Most academic publications in this area are focused on the process and mechanisms of conducting changes in organizations, and in many cases they proceed from several simplifications related to availability of personnel of certain qualification and irreversible nature of particular changes. In this regard, many authors who try to simulate the process of organizational change under ideal conditions of the theory, reach a deadlock in practical situations when the process of implementing changes cannot even be started because it is not possible to recruit specialists of required qualifications and skills. In many cases because of the time pressure it is not even possible to provide existing specialists with additional training. Thus, it is easy to see that while simplifications cannot be implemented, and indeed these are 90% of cases of real businesses, the value of theoretical advancements in the field of practical organizational change is decreased. All this leads to the situation when theorists and practitioners exist in parallel worlds and are quite skeptical about each other’s activity. Authors of the paper for a number of years combine research and academic activity with practical managerial work on Russian plants. The paper examines particular specifics and conditions of conducting necessary changes in organizations which are “not equipped” with employees of needed qualification and there are limited opportunities to improve the situation because of the tight schedule of changes. Results of research conducted by authors will be essential, first of all, for small and medium businesses that function under considerable limitations of internal and external organizational resources.
The relationship between material technologies and the organisation needed to use them has tantalised practitioners and fascinated theorists. This paper shows the craft-orientation of theatre performance production, analysing how a show is made through organisation, and how this craft sensibility affects the propensity to adopt new digital technologies amidst increasing pressures to do so from arts funding organisations. Using a novel process-mapping method not before applied to the cultural sector, the paper reveals how the many roles of theatre production including Directors, Set Design, Production Management, and specialist functions like sound, light and wardrobe integrate their work using traditional boundary objects and largely craft practices. The paper argues that this craft sensibility together with scepticism for mediated communication partially explains the apparent reticence of Performance Arts organisations to adopt digital technologies. Any initiative to encourage adoption needs to recognise these practices and values.
The article discusses the importance of the implementation of educational programs for pre-school children to study the basics of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM-knowledge), as the scientific basis of development in today’s world of technological transition. Overview of the current situation in preschool education shows that STEM-knowledge gives preschoolers great potential for further development in primary and secondary schools. Studies also show that boys are more likely to acquire a better knowledge of mathematics and engineering sciences, which — to a certain extent — is determined by the teachers and pupils gender stereotypes concerning pre-school education. The article deals with the subject of STEM-knowledge for preschool children and the gender dimensions of its successful teaching. The two important parts of education policy should be implemented: development of pre-service activities or teacher training on gender analysis in STEM-programs and wider spreading of STEM-knowledge in the municipal kindergartens. Knowledge of gender differences should not lead to the development of gender dichotomy in education; on the contrary, it should lead to equal access of children to knowledge by developing motivation and positive attitudes of boys and girls to STEM-knowledge. The high importance of STEM-education is based on the fact that new information technologies and scientific approach encompass any professional activity and even everyday life of modern man.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.