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Of all publications in the section: 21
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Article
Scuotto V., Del Giudice M., Garcia-Perez A. et al. The Journal of Technology Transfer. 2020. Vol. 45. P. 1634-1654.

By shifting towards Romer’s (Am Econ Rev 94:1002–1037, 1986) economy and so the spread of knowledge economy, universities started to adopt a collaborative approach with their entrepreneurial ecosystem. They turn out to be risk taker, autonomous, proactive, competitive, and innovative. In a nutshell, they are entrepreneurial oriented with the aim to generate new innovative ventures, known as research-based spin offs. Doubly, this has induced an improvement of technology transfer and the degree of entrepreneurship in the current knowledge economy. However there still is a paucity of studies on the spill over effect of entrepreneurial orientated universities and research-based spin off on technology transfer need to be more explored. Therefore, the article investigates the link between entrepreneurial orientation and such spill overs by offering an outlook of two universities and two research-based spin offs in the United Kingdom. The scope is to provide a deep view of technological innovativeness in a research context, entrepreneurial oriented. Our research suggests that entrepreneurial attitude has become an imperative to succeed in the context where British institutions currently operate. Entrepreneurship brings the necessary technological innovation to the university and its students, which results in better positioning of the university at national and international levels, with the subsequent impact on their ability to attract not only new students and academics but also funding to conduct their research.

Added: Jan 24, 2020
Article
Mrożewski M., Kratzer J. The Journal of Technology Transfer. 2017. Vol. 42. No. 5. P. 1125-1142.

Since the work of Schumpeter, entrepreneurship has been regarded as a concept that is in close relation to innovation. However, recent country level investigations show that technology innovation and new business creation can be regarded as two separate phenomena. In this paper we provide an explanation for the above contradiction through the distinguishing between two types of entrepreneurship, necessity and opportunity entrepreneurship. Building on opportunity theory and rational choice theory, we investigate the influence of both types of entrepreneurship on country-level innovation, and furthermore, pay particular attention to the interaction between opportunity entrepreneurship and the amount of opportunities available. We find that necessity entrepreneurship is inversely related to country-level innovation, whereas opportunity entrepreneurship is positively linked to technological progress. The positive effect of opportunity entrepreneurship, however, diminishes with an increased amount of entrepreneurial opportunities. This interaction indicates that opportunity availability is an important element of a country’s entrepreneurship environment.

Added: Oct 20, 2017
Article
Carayannis E., Meissner D. The Journal of Technology Transfer. 2017. Vol. 42. No. 2. P. 236-252.

In line with the growing number and type of innovation sources and partners, companies’ institutional set up to manage the potential problems of multiple sources and partners for innovation is increasingly challenged to develop and maintain effective and efficient corporate innovation activities. The paper highlights recent developments of open innovation in companies. Findings are based on company case studies involving companies from different industries and company representatives. It shows that open innovation is actually a paradigm long practised but the main efforts are targeted to continuously developing the organization and managerial model of companies to meet the new innovation challenges.

Added: Apr 26, 2017
Article
Meissner D., Kergroach S. The Journal of Technology Transfer. 2021. No. 46. P. 197-222.

The “policy mix” concept has gained popularity among science, technology and innovation policy communities over the past two decades in a context of growing policy complexity and need for policy evidence. Pressing societal challenges are also prompting governments to rethink policy making in order to better align public intervention across policy domains and leverage the transformative potential of system innovations. Governments faced multiple obstacles in implementing a policy mix approach in policy making and evaluation. Based on a comparative analysis of international STI policy repositories, a conceptual framework is proposed, as well as structuring principles and operational guidelines for mapping the composition of a policy mix, identifying interactions among components and translating the mapping into measurement. In that view, a range of new policy mix metrics is introduced. Finally, the discussion focuses on the need for moving towards a new data management paradigm and enlarging the measurement mix.

Added: Feb 27, 2020
Article
Meissner D., Shmatko N. A. The Journal of Technology Transfer. 2019. Vol. 44. No. 4. P. 1273-1289.

Approaches to innovation have been thoroughly studied in the last decades. It’s well understood that an organizations’ culture is among the crucial factors for success and renewal of organizations. Yet culture is made by people and their attitudes. Innovation culture requires skills and competence by employees which are presumably beyond the traditional basic knowledge taught at undergraduate, graduate and post graduate level. This is even more evident for university graduates who’re mainly finding professional careers in the private sector who has special requirements to employees. Graduates’ skills are strongly influenced by curricula and the cultural values and norms outside curricula transferred by universities to students. But frequently these skills are designed by universities without profound knowledge of the actual skills required. At the same time organizations acting as potential graduates employers value researcher skills and competencies differently from how these are perceived. The paper suggests that understanding the professional and universal skills of researchers perceived and needed is one element of innovation culture. Thereby the skills in discussion go beyond purely academic skills only; instead it is proposed that skills which increase the absorptive capacity of companies are crucial for implementing effective productive innovation management.

Added: Jun 14, 2018
Article
Vonortas N. The Journal of Technology Transfer. 2018. Vol. 43. No. 2. P. 259-262.
Added: Apr 8, 2017
Article
Lee G., Lee K., Meissner N. et al. The Journal of Technology Transfer. 2020. P. 1-11.

The globalisation trend of the past few decades, driven to a large extent by the proliferation of GVCs, has led to a set of significant changes in patterns of technology upgrading and new modes of interaction between domestic technology efforts and external sources of technological knowledge. Whether this new dynamic will lead to continuing increase in the economic importance of emerging economies will ultimately depend on whether their productivity growth will be driven by technology upgrading, requiring active and coordinated activity orchestrated by a variety of state and non-state actors under diverse sectoral, regional and national innovation systems. The new dynamic also reinforces the focus on local–global interfaces which becomes ever more important once we recognize that in the 21st century technology upgrading challenges depend much more on improvements in connectivity and on the industrial ecosystem. Still, the globalization process experienced in the past few decades—reflected in this collection of papers—may need to be recalibrated in the face of the drastic geopolitical changes that the process itself has brought about.

Added: Nov 11, 2020
Article
Lee J., Lee K., Meissner D. et al. The Journal of Technology Transfer. 2020. P. 1-11.

The globalisation trend of the past few decades, driven to a large extent by the proliferation of GVCs, has led to a set of significant changes in patterns of technology upgrading and new modes of interaction between domestic technology efforts and external sources of technological knowledge. Whether this new dynamic will lead to continuing increase in the economic importance of emerging economies will ultimately depend on whether their productivity growth will be driven by technology upgrading, requiring active and coordinated activity orchestrated by a variety of state and non-state actors under diverse sectoral, regional and national innovation systems. The new dynamic also reinforces the focus on local–global interfaces which becomes ever more important once we recognize that in the 21st century technology upgrading challenges depend much more on improvements in connectivity and on the industrial ecosystem. Still, the globalization process experienced in the past few decades—reflected in this collection of papers—may need to be recalibrated in the face of the drastic geopolitical changes that the process itself has brought about.

Added: Jul 17, 2020
Article
Lebdioui A., Lee K., Pietrobelli C. The Journal of Technology Transfer. 2020. P. 1-26.

This paper starts by showing that Chile and Malaysia are on the path of escaping the middle-income trap in terms of their income level relative to that of the USA. In contrast to the conventional view, we find that the leading export sectors are not manufacturing (such as electronics) in Malaysia or mining alone in Chile. Instead, the engines of growth have been (1) resource-based sectors (petroleum, rubber and palm oil) in Malaysia; and (2) non-mining resource-based sectors (salmon, fruits, wine and wood-based) in Chile. Furthermore, the sustained growth of these sectors is not the result of free-markets, as frequently argued, but also of specific industrial policy measures, that have enabled the accumulation of productive and innovation capabilities through R&D support, fiscal incentives, export assistance, and quality control. We also find that the emergence of locally-controlled firms has been an important aspect of this long-term success, although the sources of the initial learning included foreign actors and FDI. The cases of Chile and Malaysia consequently show the possibility of escaping the middle-income trap not through manufacturing but instead through resource-based development. Such strategy differs from the so-called short cycle technology-based catch-up by the East Asian tigers and from the unsustainable commodity rent-extraction in resource-rich countries, but is consistent with the view that emphasizes the need to specialize in sectors with low entry barriers, and to promote investments in innovation and technological capabilities.

Added: Jul 17, 2020
Article
Scott T. J., Vonortas N. The Journal of Technology Transfer. 2019. P. 1-20.

A basic mission of NASA is to use the United States’ segment of the International Space Station (ISS), designated a national laboratory, to facilitate the growth of a commercial marketplace in low Earth orbit for scientific research, technology development, observation and communications. Protein crystallization research has long been promoted as a promising commercial application of the ISS for drug development. In this paper we examine the case for microgravity protein crystallization under different private and public investment scenarios. The analysis suggests that sustaining investment is unlikely to come from individual companies alone. Public and private investment must be combined and managed to overcome a number of challenges including the need to integrate microgravity crystallization into the complex system of technologies involved in structure-based drug design. Multiple risks related to transportation costs/frequency, risk for cargo and research crew, and uncertainty about the longevity of the ISS complicate the calculus.

Added: Jan 23, 2020
Article
Unger M., Marsan G. A., Meissner D. et al. The Journal of Technology Transfer. 2020. Vol. 45. P. 806-819.

This paper discusses the role of higher education institutions within the framework of the knowledge triangle between academic education, scientific research and innovation, as it has gained importance in recent years as a framework for innovation policies especially in the OECD and Europe. First, complementary concepts of universities’ outreach activities and extended role model such as ‘third mission’, ‘triple helix’, ‘entrepreneurial or civic university’ models and ‘smart specialization’ are reflected against their fit with the concept of the knowledge triangle, also with respect to new requirements for university governance. Second, a new understanding of spillovers between public sectors research and the business sector according to knowledge triangle is presented.

Added: Oct 26, 2018
Article
Fischer B. B., Kotsemir M. N., Meissner D. et al. The Journal of Technology Transfer. 2020. Vol. 45. P. 1748-1774.

The article compares and contrasts different sets of patent-based indicators, traditionally used to assess countries’ technological capacities and specialisation. By doing that, we seek to determine how a chosen metric might affect the results of such an analysis, sometimes causing misleading conclusions on technological profiling. This goal is achieved with the statistical analysis of patent activity of the top-10 patenting economies. Findings indicate the need for policymakers to employ a complex of patent-related indicators when formulating technological specialisation strategies. Results also offer a taxonomy of technological capacities of the leading countries, which can further help understanding their current status and prospects for future progress. Thus, the paper might be of interest for researchers and analysts, which seek to offer methodological approaches and models to assess technological development of economies, as well as for policymakers governing the process.

Added: Nov 18, 2019
Article
Fischer B., Schaeffer P., Vonortas N. et al. The Journal of Technology Transfer. 2018. Vol. 43. No. 2. P. 263-284.

Much in line with what has been happening in developed economies for the past few decades, policy decision makers and industry strategists in developing countries have dedicated increased attention to initiatives that foster University-Industry Collaboration (UIC). The overarching goal is to enhance the capabilities/efficiencies of innovation systems, leveraging the role of universities as generators and disseminators of valuable knowledge, highly concentrated in academia in these laggard nations. In this article we empirically assess the extent to which institutional openness in universities towards UIC linkages affect the generation of knowledge-intensive spin-offs and academic patenting activity in the context of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. We use data for 462 knowledge-intensive entrepreneurial projects related to academics receiving grants from the PIPE Program of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, as well as international patenting behavior for 126 universities and research institutes. Additionally, we have gathered data for UIC activity (2002–2010) in the affected region. The main novelty of our approach is to qualify UIC according to three different dimensions of openness, focusing on UIC levels and objects of collaboration. Results suggest that the quality of linkages (collaboration content) is a stronger predictor of both types of university entrepreneurship than the extent to which universities are connected to firms. 

Added: Apr 8, 2017
Article
Linton J., Xu W. The Journal of Technology Transfer. 2020. P. 1-14.

This paper discusses the challenges of technological entrepreneurship education in the current education system and the questions that need to be answered to improve the efficacy and efficiency of technological entrepreneurship education. The nature of technological entrepreneurship requires a diversified set of skills for success; however, the traditional education system focuses on single discipline. Consequently, it is difficult for either engineers and scientists who are lacking managerial skills or management students who are lacking of engineer or science oriented knowledge to be successful. A further concern is that different communities have entirely different perceptions of how entrepreneurship is defined often causing both confusion and disagreement in communications between researchers and educators with each other. The paper considers the existing literature and develops a series of comprehensive questions that still need to be addressed. By answering these questions, the traditional education methods can be transformed to be more appropriate and useful for technological entrepreneurship education.

Added: Dec 9, 2019
Article
Roud V., Vlasova V. The Journal of Technology Transfer. 2020. Vol. 45. No. 3. P. 870-907.

The debate on the industry-science cooperation has raised questions about what determines the successful interactions and their impact on a firm’s innovation performance. This paper discusses the relevance of traditional hypotheses on the relationship between industry and science to developing countries using the evidence from Russian manufacturing. We distinguish between several modes of cooperation (new-to-market innovation, new-to-firm innovation, acquisition of non-R&D services) and investigate a broad range of determinants, including competition regime, absorptive capacity, technological opportunities, appropriability conditions and public support. Our findings illustrate that in less-developed national innovation systems with below average levels of technological opportunity, the industry-science link is influenced more by the specificity of economic activity, firm size and maturity than a result of higher firm-level innovation effort. Public support should be specifically tailored to promote networking with R&D organizations and universities and must consider expanding the focus to account for non-R&D based cooperative activities.

Added: Oct 9, 2018
Article
Carayannis E., Meissner D., Razheva (Edelkina) A. The Journal of Technology Transfer. 2015. Vol. 42. P. 460-484.

The paper touches upon the different sides of cutting-edge science, technology and innovation (STI) policy concepts such as clusters and smart specialization and STI management such as open innovation and foresight which are of great interest to researches, scientists and managers in course of building successful business and creating dynamic regions, identifying the priorities of future, coping with uncertainty and rising risks, heated by the global challenges. In particular, we explore the dynamics and interactions of intelligent clusters, research and innovation smart specialization strategies, targeted open innovation and foresight networks within the context of entrepreneurship and innovation ecosystems. Having investigated the benefits and potential threats of open innovation and foresight from different standpoints within innovation ecosystems and smart specialisation, the recent trend of shifting priority setting into technological and social dimensions with the aim of developing specialized clusters and regions is underlined. The identified tight linkage between the fruits from cluster smart specialization, open innovation and foresight enables implementing simultaneously all of them at various stages of innovation process. Thereafter the analysis of innovative collaboration forms reveals that the holistic views of open innovators and rational application of foresight are becoming the central message of the strategy development and implementation process.

Added: Sep 22, 2016
Article
Zaichenko S. A. The Journal of Technology Transfer. 2018. Vol. 43. No. 2. P. 368-388.

This study addresses ‘science-based’ technology transfer by research and technology organizations (RTO) whose mission is to combine intramural R&D and technology extension for industrial application. The paper is based on a unique database of Russian RTOs relating their science-based activity to technology transfer performance, on the one hand, and the contribution of R&D personnel sourced from universities to R&D output, on the other. The outcomes suggest a positive relationship between RTO scientific publication and technology transfer activity. Moreover, science-based outputs are contributed mostly by researchers coming to RTOs from academia. Such results are important to countries like Russia with many RTOs that play an important intermediary role between science and technological innovation. The study offers more fine-grained results regarding the differential impact of various types of academic personnel inflows in public versus private RTOs.

Added: Mar 9, 2017
Article
Proskuryakova L. N., Meissner D., Rudnik P. B. The Journal of Technology Transfer. 2017. Vol. 42. No. 1. P. 206-227.

The paper analyses technology platforms (TPs) that are seen as a valuable policy instrument to assist a multi-stakeholder formulation and implementation of long-term research and development (R&D) programs in specific technology areas. TP are predominantly initiated by policy-makers to support a wide range of priority technologies through direct funding and indirect support measures, information and technology transfer at economy or industry level. The authors propose a theoretical approach to TPs as a science, technology and innovation policy concept. A taxonomy of TPs is offered that may be useful for policy-makers in designing the R&D support measures through assessing a platform’s risk level. The paper clarifies the position of TPs in the science, technology and innovation policy mix. Through a case-study of Russia’s newly established Technology Platforms, designed after the European Technology Platforms, the authors demonstrate the policy adoption and policy learning approach to application of this tool.

Added: Apr 21, 2014
Article
Meissner D., Polt W., Vonortas N. The Journal of Technology Transfer. 2017. Vol. 42. No. 5. P. 1184-1211.

This paper considers the changes in the concept of innovation during recent decades and the degree to which such changes have been of significance to innovation policy. We observe that: (1) the notion of innovation in research, statistics, and policy is becoming increasingly broad; (2) while this broader notion is conceptually more adequate for understanding the complexity of innovation activity, it also makes it increasingly difficult to gain a clear, unambiguous picture of innovation activity; (3) policy concepts built upon this extended understanding of innovation are becoming more complex in terms of governance capacities, coordination capabilities, and evidence-based policy formulation. The broad perception of innovation will, in fact, require substantial innovations in political and administrative systems to apply.

Added: Sep 9, 2016
Article
de Moraes Silva D. R., Furtado A., Vonortas N. The Journal of Technology Transfer. 2018. Vol. 43. No. 2. P. 285-315.

This paper assesses determinants of university-industry R&D cooperation at the sectoral level. Our goal was to discuss the relevance of traditional hypotheses on university-industry linkages to developing countries in light of evidence from Brazil’s Innovation Survey to provide empirical support on the basis of two groups of independent variables: internal characteristics of firms (size, intramural R&D, extramural R&D, product innovativeness, process innovativeness), and external characteristics of markets and policies (economic risk, innovation cost, government funding). We find that for sectors other than the most cooperation-intensive outliers, the main determinants of university-industry collaboration are size, extramural R&D, and product innovativeness. Extramural R&D appears as the dominant determinant and seems to occur at the expense of intramural R&D, suggesting a substitution effect. When the outliers are included in the mix, the main predictors are size, intramural R&D and government funding, providing support to the absorptive capacity argument. 

Added: Apr 8, 2017
Article
Aridi A., Hayter C., Radosevic S. The Journal of Technology Transfer. 2020. P. 1-19.

Following long-standing calls to investigate information and communication technology (ICT) sector development in lesser-developed economies, this study examines the sector’s rapid emergence in Ukraine utilizing a catch-up cycle conceptual framework. Ukraine is a unique case due to the country’s location in Eastern Europe, the sector’s explosive growth within an otherwise stagnant economy, and related disconnectedness to other economic sectors. This study finds that the confluence of several windows of opportunity spurred an entrepreneurial response among hundreds of firms. However, most of these firms focus on low value-added segments of the ICT global value chain and lack the managerial and technical capabilities to compete globally, much less develop new products and services. As the global ICT services sector evolves, multi-level interventions are required to maintain the sector’s growth trajectory and realize the economic and social benefits normally associated the development of a domestically inter-connected ICT sector. In order for Ukraine to secure its digital future, it must seize windows of opportunity in the global and European data economy.

Added: Nov 11, 2020