Impact of Modern Information and Communication Tools on International Migration
Observing the dramatic increase in the flow of migrants since the 2000s, one can hypothesise that emergent access to the Internet and mobile communications has contributed to it. Indeed, information and communication technologies (ICTs) help potential migrants overcome the strongest barrier to migration – incomplete information. In a number of studies ICTs are found to assist migration decision-making. An alternative view suggests that ICTs enhance capacities to maintain working and family life across long distances. Empirical evidence for 191 countries for the period 1995–2015, confirms the negative link between changes in ICT development and migration intensity. In the medium- and long-term, the migration growth rate is lower in the countries with a higher ICT growth rate. The negative link may also be attributed to immigration policy developing, to face the challenges of increased availability of information needed for undertaking migration, and mitigate risk of uncontrolled migration.
The twenty-seven volume of the series "International Migration of Population: Russia and Contemporary World" is a collection of papers submitted to the Session 06-03 "The effects of migration on areas of destination" of the XXVII IUSSP International Population Conference *26031 August 2013, South Korea, Busan). The session deals with major international migration trends, increasing role of international migration in the demographic development of receiving countries.
The authors are responsible for the reliability of data and other materials used. The series is both of scientific and educational character and can be accordingly used in teaching process.
The study of existing monitoring systems is topical, because at the present level of development the transition to information society and knowledge economy becomes one of the key elements of national strategy aimed to increase country's competitiveness in the international market. There are many index systems that study the nature of this phenomenon and compare countries by the level of digital development. To ensure objective evaluation of innovation capacity the analysis of current monitoring systems applied in measuring the development of ICT and e-readiness together with data collection was suggested.
In the article authors use the vital birh and death registration data on 10 regions exctracted from the Rosstat database to evaluate an input of international migrant into Russian fertility and mortality levels.
The subject matter of the article is the EU immigration policy applied to third country nationals (TCN). The main aspects of the policy are considered: humanitarian policy, national security policy, and various legal tools of its implementation. In particular the author considers the 1951 Geneva Convention and 1967 New York Protocol relating to the status of refugees, the clauses of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU regulating «area of freedom, security and justice» (title V), Schengen Conventions, the related acts of the EU secondary law. As to the humanitarian aspect of the EU immigration policy, its moral essence - the respect for human dignity is emphasized. The national security measures are directed mainly against illegal immigration. Finally the author comes to the conclusion that EU humanitarian efforts in the immigration policy proved to be more effective than the security one.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.