### Article

## On probability of high extremes for product of two independent Gaussian stationary processes

Let X(t), Y(t), t ≥ 0, be two independent zero-mean stationary Gaussian

processes, whose covariance functions are such that ri (t) = 1 − |t|^{a_{i}} + o(|t|^{a_{i}})

as t → 0, with 0 < a_{i} ≤ 2, i = 1, 2 and both of the functions are less than one

for non-zero t . We derive for any p the exact asymptotic behavior of the probability

P(max_{t∈[0,p]}X(t)Y(t) > u) as u → ∞. We discuss possibilities generalizing

obtained results to other Gaussian chaos processes h(X(t)), with a Gaussian vector

process X(t) and a homogeneous function h of positive order.

Let $(X(t),Y(t))$, $t\ge0$, be a zero-mean stationary Gaussian vector process with a covariance functions for components $r_i(t)$ satisfying Pickand's condition $r_i(t)=1-c_i|t|^{\alpha_i}(1+o(1))$, $t\to 0$, $c_i>0$, $0<\alpha_i\le2$, $i=1,2.$ Let $r_i(t)<1$, $i=1,2$, $t>0.$ Assuming that $r\equiv {\bf E}\,X(t)Y(t)\in(-1,1)$ and $\lim_{t,s\rightarrow0}({\bf E}\,X(t)Y(s)-r)/|t-s|^{\min(\alpha_1,\alpha_2)}$ exists, we study the behavior of probability ${\bf P}(\max_{t\in\lbrack0,p]}X(t)Y(t)>u)$ as $u\rightarrow\infty$ for any $p$. In particular, we derive for any $p$ the exact asymptotic behavior of probability ${\bf P}(\max_{t\in[0,p]}(X^{2}(t)-Y^{2}(t))>u)$ as $u\rightarrow\infty$ for independent Gaussian stationary processes $X(t),Y(t)$ satisfying the above conditions.

We develop an automated variational inference method for Bayesian structured prediction problems with Gaussian process (GP) priors and linear-chain likelihoods. Our approach does not need to know the details of the structured likelihood model and can scale up to a large number of observations. Furthermore, we show that the required expected likelihood term and its gradients in the variational objective (ELBO) can be estimated efficiently by using expectations over very low-dimensional Gaussian distributions. Optimization of the ELBO is fully parallelizable over sequences and amenable to stochastic optimization, which we use along with control variate techniques to make our framework useful in practice. Results on a set of natural language processing tasks show that our method can be as good as (and sometimes better than, in particular with respect to expected log-likelihood) hard-coded approaches including svm-struct and crfs, and overcomes the scalability limitations of previous inference algorithms based on sampling. Overall, this is a fundamental step to developing automated inference methods for Bayesian structured prediction.

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.

We propose a method (TT-GP) for approximate inference in Gaussian Process (GP) models. We build on previous scalable GP research including stochastic variational inference based on inducing inputs, kernel interpolation, and structure exploiting algebra. The key idea of our method is to use Tensor Train decomposition for variational parameters, which allows us to train GPs with billions of inducing inputs and achieve state-of-the-art results on several benchmarks. Further, our approach allows for training kernels based on deep neural networks without any modifications to the underlying GP model. A neural network learns a multidimensional embedding for the data, which is used by the GP to make the final prediction. We train GP and neural network parameters end-to-end without pretraining, through maximization of GP marginal likelihood. We show the efficiency of the proposed approach on several regression and classification benchmark datasets including MNIST, CIFAR-10, and Airline.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.