On extreme coefficients of the Jones-Kauffman polynomial for virtual links
An important problem of knot theory is to find or estimate the extreme coefficients of the Jones–Kauffman polynomial for (virtual) links with a given number of classical crossings. This problem has been studied by Morton and Bae  and Manchón  for the case of classical links. It turns out that the general case can be reduced to the case when the extreme coefficient function is expressible in terms of chord diagrams (previous authors consider only d-diagrams which correspond to the classical case ). We find the maximal absolute values for generic chord diagrams, thus, for generic virtual knots. Also we consider the "next" coefficient of the Jones–Kauffman polynomial in terms of framed chord diagrams and find its maximal value for a given number of chords. These two functions on chord diagrams are of their own interest because there are related to the Vassiliev invariants of classical knots and J-invariants of planar curves, as mentioned in .
Maximal chord diagrams up to all isomorphisms are enumerated. The enumerating formula is based on a bijection between rooted one-vertex one-face maps on locally orientable surfaces and a certain class of symmetric chord diagrams. This result extends the one of Cori and Marcus regarding maximal chord diagrams enumerated up to rotations.
A weight system is a function on chord diagrams that satisfies the so-called four-term relations. Vassiliev’s theory of finite-order knot invariants describes these invariants in terms of weight systems. In particular, there is a weight system corresponding to the colored Jones polynomial. This weight system can be easily defined in terms of the Lie algebra sl2, but this definition is too cumbersome from the computational point of view, so that the values of this weight system are known only for some limited classes of chord diagrams. In the present paper we give a formula for the values of the sl2 weight system for a class of chord diagrams whose intersection graphs are complete bipartite graphs with no more than three vertices in one of the parts. Our main computational tool is the Chmutov–Varchenko reccurence relation. Furthermore, complete bipartite graphs with no more than three vertices in one of the parts generate Hopf subalgebras of the Hopf algebra of graphs, and we deduce formulas for the projection onto the subspace of primitive elements along the subspace of decomposable elements in these subalgebras. We compute the values of the sl2 weight system for the projections of chord diagrams with such intersection graphs. Our results confirm certain conjectures due to S. K. Lando on the values of the weight system sl2 at the projections of chord diagrams on the space of primitive elements.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.
Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.