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## The D_8-tower of weak Jacobi forms and applications

We construct a tower of arithmetic generators of the bigraded polynomial ring J_{*,*}^{w, O}(D_n) of weak Jacobi modular forms invariant with respect to the full orthogonal group O(D_n) of the root lattice D_n for 2\le n\le 8. This tower corresponds to the tower of strongly reflective modular forms on the orthogonal groups of signature (2,n) which determine the Lorentzian Kac-Moody algebras related to the BCOV (Bershadsky-Cecotti-Ooguri-Vafa)-analytic torsions. We prove that the main three generators of index one of the graded ring satisfy a special system of modular differential equations. We found also a general modular differential equation of the generator of weight 0 and index 1 which generates the automorphic discriminant of the moduli space of Enriques surfaces.

We identify the *sl(n*+1) isotypical components of the global Weyl modules *W*(*k**ω*1) with certain natural subspaces of the polynomial ring in *k* variables. We then apply the representation theory of current algebras to classical problems in invariant theory.

We show that the eighth power of the Jacobi triple product is a Jacobi--Eisenstein series of weight $4$ and index $4$ and we calculate its Fourier coefficients. As applications we obtain explicit formulas for the eighth powers of theta-constants of arbitrary order and the Fourier coefficients of the Ramanujan Delta-function

$\Delta(\tau)=\eta^{24}(\tau)$, $\eta^{12}(\tau)$ and $\eta^{8}(\tau)$ in terms of Cohen's numbers $H(3,N)$ and $H(5,N)$. We give new formulas for the number of representations of integers as sums of eight higher figurate numbers. We also calculate the sixteenth and the twenty-fourth powers of the Jacobi theta-series using the basic Jacobi forms.

Abstract This mini course is an additional part to my semester course on the theory of Jacobi modular forms given at the mathematical department of NRU HSE in Moscow (see Gritsenko Jacobi modular forms: 30 ans après; COURSERA (12 lectures and seminars), 2017–2019). This additional part contains some applications of Jacobi modular forms to the theory of elliptic genera and Witten genus. The subject of this course is related to my old talk given in Japan (see Gritsenko (Proc Symp “Automorphic forms and L-functions” 1103:71–85, 1999)).

We prove that there exist exactly eight Siegel modular forms with respect to the congruence subgroups of Hecke type of the paramodular groups of genus two vanishing precisely along the diagonal of the Siegel upper half-plane. This is a solution of a question formulated during the conference "Black holes, Black Rings and Modular Forms" (ENS, Paris, August 2007). These modular forms generalize the classical Igusa form and the forms constructed by Gritsenko and Nikulin in 1998.

This book offers an introduction to the research in several recently discovered and actively developing mathematical and mathematical physics areas. It focuses on: 1) Feynman integrals and modular functions, 2) hyperbolic and Lorentzian Kac-Moody algebras, related automorphic forms and applications to quantum gravity, 3) superconformal indices and elliptic hypergeometric integrals, related instanton partition functions, 4) moonshine, its arithmetic aspects, Jacobi forms, elliptic genus, and string theory, and 5) theory and applications of the elliptic Painleve equation, and aspects of Painleve equations in quantum field theories. All the topics covered are related to various partition functions emerging in different supersymmetric and ordinary quantum field theories in curved space-times of different (d=2,3,…,6) dimensions. Presenting multidisciplinary methods (localization, Borcherds products, theory of special functions, Cremona maps, etc) for treating a range of partition functions, the book is intended for graduate students and young postdocs interested in the interaction between quantum field theory and mathematics related to automorphic forms, representation theory, number theory and geometry, and mirror symmetry.

It is more than 10 years ago that the first edition of this book has appeared. Since then, the field of computational invariant theory has been enjoying a lot of attention and activity, resulting in some important and, to us, exciting developments. This is why we think that it is time for a second enlarged and revised edition. Apart from correcting some mistakes and reorganizing the presentation here and there, we have added the following material: further results about separating invariants and their computation (Sects. 2.4 and 4.9.1), Symonds’ degree bound (Sect. 3.3.2), Hughes’ and Kemper’s extension of Molien’s formula (Sect. 3.4.2), King’s algorithm for computing fundamental invariants (Sect. 3.8.2), Broer’s criterion for the quasi- Gorenstein property (Sect. 3.9.11), Dufresne’s generalization of Serre’s result on polynomial invariant rings and her result with Jeffries (Sect. 3.12.2), Kamke’s algorithm for computing invariants of finite groups acting on algebras (Sect. 3.13), Kemper’s and Derksen’s algorithm for computing invariants of reductive groups in positive characteristic (Sect. 3.13), algorithms by Müller-Quade and Beth, Hubert and Kogan, and Kamke and Kemper for computing invariant fields and localizations of invariant rings (Sect. 4.10.1), and work by van den Essen, Freudenburg, Greuel and Pfister, Kemper, Sancho de Salas, and Tanimoto on invariants of the additive group and of connected solvable groups (Sect. 4.10.5).

Last but not least, this edition contains two new appendices, written by Vladimir Popov, on algorithms for deciding the containment of orbit closures and on a stratification of Hilbert’s nullcone. The second appendix has an addendum, authored by Norbert A’Campo and Vladimir Popov, containing the source code of a program for computing this stratification. We would like to thank Bram Broer, Emilie Dufresne, Vladimir Popov, Jim Shank, and Peter Symonds for valuable comments on a pre-circulated version of this edition, Vladimir Popov and Norbert A’Campo for their contributions to the book, and Ruth Allewelt at Springer-Verlag for managing the production process and for gently pushing us to finally finish our work and hand over the files. Ann Arbor,MI, USA Harm Derksen Munich, Germany Gregor Kemper July 2015

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.