Cognitive brain signatures of youth with early onset and relatives with schizophrenia: Evidence from fMRI meta-analyses
Deficits in cognitive function are a major characteristic of schizophrenia. Many functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies examine brain correlates of cognitive function in adults with schizophrenia, showing altered implication of associative areas such as the prefrontal cortex and temporal cortex. fMRI studies also examine brain representation of cognitive function in adolescents with early onset schizophrenia and those at risk of the disorder, yet results are often inconsistent. We compile and analyze data from eligible fMRI studies using quantitative meta-analyses to reveal concordant brain activity associated with adolescent relatives of patients with schizophrenia and those with early onset schizophrenia. Results show similar functional hubs of brain activity (eg, precuneus) yet in opposite hemispheres and clusters in ventrolateral rather than dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Other areas of altered implication include the middle temporal gyrus, and insula. We discuss findings in reference to the protracted maturation of the prefrontal cortex and possible effects due to medication status of the two groups.