Are clusters resilient? Evidence from Canadian textile industries
We investigate whether plants inside and outside geographic clusters differ in their resilience to adverse economic shocks. To this end, we develop a bottom-up procedure to delimit clusters using Canadian geo-coded plant-level data. Focusing on the textile and clothing (T&C) sector and exploiting the series of dramatic changes faced by that sector between 2001 and 2013, we find little evidence that plants in T&C clusters are more resilient than plants outside clusters. Over the whole period, plants inside clusters are neither less likely to die nor more likely to adapt by switching their main line of business. However, in the industries the most exposed to the surge of Chinese imports after 2005, plants inside clusters die and exit less than others in the following 2 years.
The article explores the question how the European political mainstream responds to the challenges of right-wing populism and what effects it brings to the resilience of the political system. The empirical material for the article is the British case. Focusing on the internal dimension of the concept of resilience, we use the classification of the mainstream strategic responses developed by W. Downs and the analytical tools of historical institutionalism to investigate the mainstream strategic responses (Conservative and Labor) to the challenges of right-wing populism (United Kingdom Independence Party, UKIP) in UK. As a result of the research, it was concluded that the political mainstream is moving from ignoring strategies to mixed strategies, in this case, cooptation of UKIP’s program with elements of political and institutional isolation. Such strategies are effective from an electoral point of view, but at the same time they carry “unintended consequences” for the resilience of the whole political system.
It is a common belief that Byzantine fault-tolerant solutions for consensus are significantly slower than their crash fault-tolerant counterparts. Indeed, in PBFT, the most widely known Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus protocol, it takes three message delays to decide a value, in contrast with just two in Paxos. This motivates the search for fast Byzantine consensus algorithms that can produce decisions after just two message delays in the common case, e.g., under the assumption that the current leader is correct and not suspected by correct processes. The (optimal) two-step latency comes with the cost of lower resilience: fast Byzantine consensus requires more processes to tolerate the same number of faults. In particular, 5f+1 processes were claimed to be necessary to tolerate f Byzantine failures. In this paper, we present a fast Byzantine consensus algorithm that relies on just 5f-1 processes. Moreover, we show that 5f-1 is the tight lower bound, correcting a mistake in the earlier work. While the difference of just 2 processes may appear insignificant for large values of f, it can be crucial for systems of a smaller scale. In particular, for f=1, our algorithm requires only 4 processes, which is optimal for any (not necessarily fast) partially synchronous Byzantine consensus algorithm.
In modern psychology, more attention is paid to theories aimed at finding and actualizing the person’s strengths. This study examines the role of resilience as a personality trait on the ability to cope with difficult life situations during college. The respondents of this study live in a foreign country without parents, socialize in a new environment, and are forced to master the curriculum in a non-native language. It examines how psychological well-being depends on resilience and whether there are gender differences in the severity of traits. It analyzes what problems students have and how the success of overcoming them depends on resilience. It turned out that resilience correlates with psychological well-being, more resilient respondents cope more successfully with the resolution of difficult life situations, more easily adapt to a new environment, and have fewer emotional problems. However, no one named resilience as a resource; the support of other people is a much more important factor. This observation needs further verification.
The biopharmaceutical industry has always been a highly concentrated sector of the economy. This industry became a matter of great interest in Russia when import-substituting programmes grew in relevance. The implementation of the Pharma-2020 strategy, along with the stable indicators of the economic growth of the industry, facilitated the creation of cluster initiatives — both innovative and innovative local ones — in certain regions of the Russian Federation. A necessary condition for the creation of cluster initiatives is the existence of a high industrial concentration in a rather limited area. The article proposes a methodology that can be used to check whether cluster initiatives match geographic clusters; it also demonstrates how this methodology can be applied to the cluster initiatives created in Russia between 2008 and 2018 in order to verify how they match the geographical clusters established on the basis of spatial indices of industrial concentration. We have established that out of the twenty-four biopharmaceutical clusters considered, eight clusters were created in areas where the relevant industry is not geographically concentrated. We have found regions in which the geographic concentration of the biopharmaceutical industry is rather high, although regional governments did not launch cluster initiatives of the related industries. We have analyzed the structure of the biopharmaceutical cluster initiatives and revealed that: the number of participants is insufficient; the share of industrial plants is low; the industry is not sufficiently specialized; small and average plants are involved only at an average level.
The unique nature of cyberspace, characterized by interdependence between material and social objects as well as the complexity of its structures, urges leading actors of world politics to seek new strategies of organizing their activities within this area. In the European Union, cybersecurity issues are debated on the basis of the resilience category. In this context the latter is understood as a system’s ability to adjust to new challenges, flexibly respond to threats, and successfully recover after blows. Using a discourse analysis approach the authors examine the genesis of the resiliencediscourse and the logic of its development in the EU cybersecurity policy, reveal nuances of how this category is interpreted in official documents as well as point out difficulties regarding practical application of this category.
The authors trace a gradual evolution of the EU approach towards cybersecurity from the well-established definitions of cyberspace to the ecosystem terms and concepts, which are particularly relevant to the resilience-based concept of cybersecurity. Within this approach, the Internet is considered not as a static object but as a complex heterogeneous system where a state of security is inextricably linked to a state of insecurity.
There is no single and coherent definition of resilience in the EU official documents yet. Nevertheless, it is stressed that one can see a gradual transformation of the official discourse from purely technical definitions to inclusion of a wider range of socio-political factors. However, the EU official discourse on this issue remains highly controversial. This refers, for instance, to the lack of a unified understanding of the ‘cyberresilience’ and ‘cybersecurity’ concepts. The authors highlight a tendency towards increasing securitization of the cybersphere in the EU cybersecurity discourse, which might lead to the narrowing of the concept of ‘cyberresilience’ and its transformation into a common euphemism. At the same time the authors conclude that the EU itself is not interested in oversecuritization of the cybersphere, and thus the EU cybersecurity policy will eventually evolve towards resilience-based approaches.
This chapter aims at identifying the specificity of the EU’s policy towards Russia today as it comes out in Brussels’s interpretation of resilience. To achieve this goal, this chapter uses contemporary academic debates on the concept of resilience and on pragmatism. The chapter then identifies with the help of critical discourse analysis the most important connotations of the resilience concept in EU foreign policy documents as well as in the commentaries which clarify how these documents were developed. The section that follows is devoted to the normative dimension of the EU’s concept of resilience while the third section describes Russian activities in the international arena as a threat to the EU’s resilience and looks at how this conceptualisation of resilience leads to the perpetuation of geopolitical competition in the shared neighbourhood. The chapter concludes by reflecting on how future EU-Russia relations might develop on the basis of the concept of resilience.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.